In the north, where the province borders Semipalatinsk, it includes the western parts of the Tarbagatai range, the summits of which (10,000 ft.) do not reach the limit of perpetual snow.
By a line running from the sources of the river Ural to the Tarbagatai range (thus separating the steppes of the Irtysh basin from those of the Aral and Balkash basins), thence along the Chinese frontier as far as the S.E.
The Tarbagatai Mountains, on the borders of Siberia, as well as several chains in Turkestan, are instances.
This massive swelling is cut into, between the Ektagh Altai and the eastern T`ien-shan, by the relative depression of Tarbagatai and Dzungaria, 1500 to 3000 ft.
The plains gradually rise southwards, where a broad spur of the Tarbagatai mountains stretches north-westwards, containing gold, copper and coal.
The Tarbagatai Mountains, still farther north, are often classified as belonging to the Altai system.
The Tarbagatai Mountains and their north-western continuation, the Chinghiz-tau, are sometimes considered to belong orographically to the Altai system; but there are good reasons for regarding them as an independent range.