From the isthmus of Kra the peninsula extends south with a general inclination towards the east, the most southerly point being Tanjong Bulus in 1° 162' N.
The breadth at the widest point, from Tanjong Pen-unjut in Trengganu to Tanjong Hantu in the Dindings territory, is about 200 m.
The seat of government is at Tanjong Pinang, a small port of 4000 inhabitants (including 160 Europeans and about 2000 Chinese), on the S.W.
Among the Malays Penang is usually spoken of as Tanjong or "The Cape," on account of the promontory upon which the town is situated.
The construction of the new harbour at Tanjong Priok, to the east of the old one, was therefore of the first importance.
The works, begun in 1877 and completed in 1886, connect the town with Tanjong ("cape") Priok by a canal, and include an outer port formed by two breakwaters, 6072 ft.
The more important places are Telok Betong, chief town of the residency, Menggala (with a good trade), Gunung Sugi, Sukadana, Tanjong Karang, and Kota Agung.
It possesses a good harbour; docks and extensive coalingwharves, which have been acquired by government from the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company, and are undergoing considerable extensions; an admiralty dockyard; and many facilities for shipping.
Gunong Tebur, Tanjong, and Bulungan had made nominal submission to them in 1834, and in 1844 the sultan of Kutei acknowledged their protectorate, a treaty of a similar character being concluded about the same time with Pasir.