Limnocnida tanganyicae was discovered first in Lake Tanganyika, but has since been discovered also in Lake Victoria and in the river Niger.
In length from Kabalo, on the Lualaba, along the Lukuga valley to Albertville on Lake Tanganyika was begun in 1911 and completed in 1915.
One of these officials in the Tanganyika region was in April 1912 sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for summarily executing 11 native prisoners, including 4 women and a child.
TANGANYIKA (a name said by V.
Above the sea, and occupies the southern end of the great central rift-valley, which terminates suddenly at its southern point, the line of depression being represented farther south by the more easterly trough of Lakes Nyasa and Rukwa, from which Tanganyika is separated by the Fipa plateau, composed of old granitoid rocks; though even here traces of old valley-walls are said by Dr Kohlschiitter to exist.
North of Tanganyika the valley is suddenly interrupted by a line of ancient eruptive ridges, which dam back the waters of Lake Kivu, but have been recently cut through by the outlet of that lake, the Rusizi, which enters Tanganyika by several mouths at its northern end.
Tanganyika has been formed by the subsidence of a long narrow tract of country relatively to the surrounding plateaus, which fall to the lake in abrupt cliffs, some thousands of feet high in places.
Various considerations throw doubt on Mr Moore's theory, especially the almost entire absence of marine fossiliferous beds in the whole of equatorial Africa at a distance from the sea, of any remains of Jurassic faunas which might link the Tanganyika forms with those of undoubted Jurassic age in neighbouring regions.
Tanganyika has never been sounded systematically, but the whole configuration of its valley points to its being generally deep, and this has been confirmed by a few actual measurements.
Though rumours of the existence of the lake had previously reached the east coast, Tanganyika was not visited by any European until, in 1858, the famous expedition of Burton and Speke reached the Arab settlement of Ujiji and partially explored the northern portion.
The mapping of Tanganyika, which long rested on the surveys of Mr E.
In the partition of Africa among the European Powers, the shores of Tanganyika have been shared by Belgium, Great Britain and Germany, Great Britain holding the southern extremity, Germany the east, and Belgium the west.
A small steamer, the " Good News," was placed on the lake by the London Missionary Society in 1884, but afterwards became the property of the African Lakes Corporation; a larger steamer, the " Hedwig von Wissmann," carrying a quick-firing Krupp gun, was launched in 1900 by a German expedition under Lieutenant Schloifer; and others are owned by the " Tanganyika Concessions " and Katanga companies.
The greater part of the trade with Tanganyika is done by the African Lakes Corporation by the Shire-Nyasa route, but the Germans have opened up overland routes from Dar-es-Salaam.
C. Hore, Lake Tanganyika (London, 1892); J.
Journal, September 1897 and January 1901; To the Mountains of the Moon (London, 1901); The Tanganyika Problem (London, 1903); L.
To the north-west end of Lake Kivu, thence across that lake near its western shore, and along the river Rusizi, which issues from it, to the spot where the Rusizi enters the north end of Lake Tanganyika; along the middle line of Tanganyika to near its southern end, when it is deflected eastward to the point where the river Kalambo enters the lake (thus leaving the southern end of Tanganyika to Great Britain).
Across the plateau between Lakes Tanganyika and Nyasa, in its southern section following the course of the river Songwe.
As already indicated, the southern half of Victoria Nyanza and the eastern shores, in whole or in part, of Lakes Kivu, Tanganyika and Nyasa, are in German territory.
The western frontier coincides with part of the eastern wall of another depression, the Central African or Albertine rift-valley, in which lie Tanganyika, Kivu and other lakes.
Of inland river systems there are four - one draining to Victoria Nyanza, another to Tanganyika, third to Nyasa and a fourth to Rukwa.
Into Tanganyika flows the Malagarasi, a considerable river with many affluents, draining the west-central part of the plateau.
The Kalambo river, a comparatively small stream near the southern end of Tanganyika, flows in a south-westerly direction.
In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.
The rift-valley faults continue down the depression, marked by numerous volcanoes, in the region of the Natron Lake and Lake Manyara; while the steep walls of the deep depression of Tanganyika and Nyasa represent the western rift system at its maximum development..
Other well-known tribes are the Wasambara, who have given their name to the highlands between Kilimanjaro and the coast, and the Warundi, inhabiting the district between Tanganyika and the Kagera.
Tabora (pop. about 37,000), the chief town of the Wanyamwezi tribes, occupies an important position on the central plateau, being the meeting-place of the trade routes from Tanganyika, Victoria Nyanza and the coast.
On the German coast of Tanganyika are Ujiji, pop. about 14,000, occupying a central position; Usumbura, at the northern end of the lake where is a fort built by the Germans; and Bismarckburg, near the southern end.
Good roads for foot traffic have been made from the seaports to the trading stations on Lakes Nyasa, Tanganyika and Victoria.
Caravans from Dar-es-Salaam to Tanganyika take 60 days to do the journey.
Captains Burton and Speke, on their Tanganyika expedition, heard of Buganda from the Arab traders in 1857.
The restless Arabs of Zanzibar had since 1857 steadily advanced Zanzibar influence to Tanganyika, Nyasa, and even through the Masai countries to the north-east coast of Victoria Nyanza and the " back door " of Uganda.
Moore, The Tanganyika Problem (1903), and To the Mountains of the Moon (Igo'); A.
Another fresh-water form is Limnocnida tanganyicae, discovered first in lake Tanganyika, and now known to occur also in the Victoria Nyanza and in the Niger.
The Cycle of Spring (1917), Sacrifice (1917), and other plays; the novels, The Home and the World (1919), The Wreck (1921); as well as a volume of letters, Glimpses of Bengal (1921), and the short stories Hungry Stones German East Africa Tanganyika Territory) Scale.]: 7.500,000 0 50 100, 50 Boundary 19141Le r ial921 Railways - - - Roads - - - - - (1916) and Mashi (1918); and republished lectures, Sadhana, or the Realization of Life (1913), Nationalism (1917), Personality (1917).
Tanganyika Territory >>
Under the General Act of Berlin of the 26th of February 1885, " in case a power exercising rights of sovereignty or protectorate " in any of the regions forming the basin of the Congo and its affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, and extending away to the Indian Ocean, should be involved in a war, the parties to the General Act bound themselves to lend their good offices in order that the territories belonging to this power be placed during the war " under the rule of neutrality and considered as belonging to a neutral state, the belligerents thenceforth abstaining from extending hostilities to the territories thus neutralized, and from using them as a basis for warlike operations " (art.
Nyanza, Tanganyika, Unyanyembe, Upper Congo.
The London Mission is meeting with success at the south end of Lake Tanganyika in North-east Rhodesia.
For a time things went well enough with the expedition; Emin occupied the important town of Tabora on the route from the coast to Tanganyika and established the post of Bukoba on Victoria Nyanza, but by degrees ill-fortune clouded its prospects.
A conventional basin of the Congo was defined, which comprised all the regions watered by the Congo and its affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, with its eastern tributaries, and in this conventional basin it was declared that "the trade of all nations shall enjoy complete freedom."
The avowed object of the Free State was to develop the resources of the territory with the aid of the natives, but it early became apparent that the Arab slave-traders, who had established themselves in the country between Lake Tanganyika and Stanley Falls and on the upper river, opposed a serious obstacle to the realization of this programme.
In harmony with this political change the trade routes have been completely altered, and the traffic which used to follow the well-beaten track from Nyangwe and the Lualaba across Tanganyika to Ujiji, or round the lake to Zanzibar, now goes down the Congo to Stanley Pool and the Atlantic."
By his will dated the 2nd of August 1889 King Leopold bequeathed to Belgium "all our sovereign rights over the Independent State of the Congo, as they are recognized by the declarations, conventions and treaties concluded since 1884 between the foreign powers on the one side, the International Association of the Congo and 2 After 1900 Nyangwe and Kasongo again became towns of some importance, and traffic along the route to Tanganyika revived with the advent of railways, though the main traffic continued down the Congo river.
Mitumba range extends from the south-eastern frontier of the colony, in a north-easterly direction towards Lake Tanganyika, and northwards along the western shore of that lake past lakes Kivu and Albert Edward to Albert Nyanza, forming the western edge of the western or Albertine rift-valley.
Describing the forests of the Manyema country, west of Lake Tanganyika, David Livingstone wrote:" Into these [primeval forests] the sun, though vertical, 'cannot penetrate, excepting by sending down at mid-day thin pencils of rays into the gloom.
The colony also includes the western shores of lakes Tanganyika and Kivu (q.v.).
This Arab influence extends, in varying degrees of intensity, over the whole eastern province, that is the region bounded east by Tanganyika, west by the Lualaba, and north by Stanley Falls and the Mangbettu country.
Extending from the Kwango affluent of the Kasai to Lake Tanganyika are the Luba-Lunda groups.
Possibly connected with the Luba-Lunda group are the cannibal Manyema (q.v.), whose home is the district between Tanganyika and the Lualaba at Nyangwe.
Rounding the south end of Lake Nyasa, Livingstone struck in a north-northwest direction for the south end of Lake Tanganyika, over country much of which had not previously been explored.
The Chambezi was crossed on the 28th of January, and the south end of Tanganyika reached on the 31st of March.
Proceeding up the west coast of Tanganyika, he reached Ujiji on the 14th of March 1869, "a ruckle of bones."
Livingstone recrossed Tanganyika in July, and passed through the country of the Manyema, but baffled partly by the natives, partly by the slave hunters, and partly by his long illnesses it was not till the 29th of March 1871 that he succeeded in reaching the Lualaba, .at the town of Nyangwe, where he stayed four months, vainly trying to get a canoe to take him across.
With Stanley Livingstone explored the north end of Tanganyika, and proved conclusively that the Rusizi runs into and not out of it.
An overland telegraph wire connects Cape Town and Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, via Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
On Tanganyika and 2500 ft.
Farther north the western depression, sometimes known as the Central African trough or Albertine rift-valley, is occupied for more than half its length by water, forming the four lakes of Tanganyika, Kivu, Albert Edward and Albert, the first-named over 400 m.
As a rule the lakes which occupy portions of the great rift-valleys have steep sides and are very deep. This is the case with the two largest of the type, Tanganyika and Nyasa, the latter of which has depths of 430 fathoms. Others, however, are shallow, and hardly reach the steep sides of the valleys in the dry season.
The periodic fluctuations in the level of Lake Tanganyika are such that its outflow is intermittent.
Divergent opinions have been held as to the mode of origin of the East African lakes, especially Tanganyika, which some geologists have considered to represent an old arm of the sea, dating from a time when the whole central Congo basin was under water; others holding that the lake water has accumulated in a depression caused by subsidence.
But signs of their former presence are not wanting as far north as Lake Tanganyika, and even, it is rumoured, still farther north.
The head-rest common in the south-east and the southern fringe of the forest area is not found far north of Tanganyika until the Horn of Africa is reached.
Thus those qualities, physical and otherwise, in which the Bantu approach the Hamites gradually fade as we proceed westward through the Congo basin, while in the east, among the tribes to the west of Tanganyika and on the upper Zambezi, " transitional " forms of culture are found.