Limnocnida tanganyicae was discovered first in Lake Tanganyika, but has since been discovered also in Lake Victoria and in the river Niger.
In length from Kabalo, on the Lualaba, along the Lukuga valley to Albertville on Lake Tanganyika was begun in 1911 and completed in 1915.
One of these officials in the Tanganyika region was in April 1912 sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for summarily executing 11 native prisoners, including 4 women and a child.
TANGANYIKA (a name said by V.
Above the sea, and occupies the southern end of the great central rift-valley, which terminates suddenly at its southern point, the line of depression being represented farther south by the more easterly trough of Lakes Nyasa and Rukwa, from which Tanganyika is separated by the Fipa plateau, composed of old granitoid rocks; though even here traces of old valley-walls are said by Dr Kohlschiitter to exist.
North of Tanganyika the valley is suddenly interrupted by a line of ancient eruptive ridges, which dam back the waters of Lake Kivu, but have been recently cut through by the outlet of that lake, the Rusizi, which enters Tanganyika by several mouths at its northern end.
Tanganyika has been formed by the subsidence of a long narrow tract of country relatively to the surrounding plateaus, which fall to the lake in abrupt cliffs, some thousands of feet high in places.
Various considerations throw doubt on Mr Moore's theory, especially the almost entire absence of marine fossiliferous beds in the whole of equatorial Africa at a distance from the sea, of any remains of Jurassic faunas which might link the Tanganyika forms with those of undoubted Jurassic age in neighbouring regions.
Tanganyika has never been sounded systematically, but the whole configuration of its valley points to its being generally deep, and this has been confirmed by a few actual measurements.
Though rumours of the existence of the lake had previously reached the east coast, Tanganyika was not visited by any European until, in 1858, the famous expedition of Burton and Speke reached the Arab settlement of Ujiji and partially explored the northern portion.
The mapping of Tanganyika, which long rested on the surveys of Mr E.
In the partition of Africa among the European Powers, the shores of Tanganyika have been shared by Belgium, Great Britain and Germany, Great Britain holding the southern extremity, Germany the east, and Belgium the west.
A small steamer, the " Good News," was placed on the lake by the London Missionary Society in 1884, but afterwards became the property of the African Lakes Corporation; a larger steamer, the " Hedwig von Wissmann," carrying a quick-firing Krupp gun, was launched in 1900 by a German expedition under Lieutenant Schloifer; and others are owned by the " Tanganyika Concessions " and Katanga companies.
The greater part of the trade with Tanganyika is done by the African Lakes Corporation by the Shire-Nyasa route, but the Germans have opened up overland routes from Dar-es-Salaam.
C. Hore, Lake Tanganyika (London, 1892); J.
Journal, September 1897 and January 1901; To the Mountains of the Moon (London, 1901); The Tanganyika Problem (London, 1903); L.
To the north-west end of Lake Kivu, thence across that lake near its western shore, and along the river Rusizi, which issues from it, to the spot where the Rusizi enters the north end of Lake Tanganyika; along the middle line of Tanganyika to near its southern end, when it is deflected eastward to the point where the river Kalambo enters the lake (thus leaving the southern end of Tanganyika to Great Britain).
Across the plateau between Lakes Tanganyika and Nyasa, in its southern section following the course of the river Songwe.
As already indicated, the southern half of Victoria Nyanza and the eastern shores, in whole or in part, of Lakes Kivu, Tanganyika and Nyasa, are in German territory.
The western frontier coincides with part of the eastern wall of another depression, the Central African or Albertine rift-valley, in which lie Tanganyika, Kivu and other lakes.
Of inland river systems there are four - one draining to Victoria Nyanza, another to Tanganyika, third to Nyasa and a fourth to Rukwa.
Into Tanganyika flows the Malagarasi, a considerable river with many affluents, draining the west-central part of the plateau.
The Kalambo river, a comparatively small stream near the southern end of Tanganyika, flows in a south-westerly direction.
In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.
The rift-valley faults continue down the depression, marked by numerous volcanoes, in the region of the Natron Lake and Lake Manyara; while the steep walls of the deep depression of Tanganyika and Nyasa represent the western rift system at its maximum development..
Other well-known tribes are the Wasambara, who have given their name to the highlands between Kilimanjaro and the coast, and the Warundi, inhabiting the district between Tanganyika and the Kagera.
Tabora (pop. about 37,000), the chief town of the Wanyamwezi tribes, occupies an important position on the central plateau, being the meeting-place of the trade routes from Tanganyika, Victoria Nyanza and the coast.
On the German coast of Tanganyika are Ujiji, pop. about 14,000, occupying a central position; Usumbura, at the northern end of the lake where is a fort built by the Germans; and Bismarckburg, near the southern end.
Good roads for foot traffic have been made from the seaports to the trading stations on Lakes Nyasa, Tanganyika and Victoria.
Caravans from Dar-es-Salaam to Tanganyika take 60 days to do the journey.
Captains Burton and Speke, on their Tanganyika expedition, heard of Buganda from the Arab traders in 1857.
The head-rest common in the south-east and the southern fringe of the forest area is not found far north of Tanganyika until the Horn of Africa is reached.
Thus those qualities, physical and otherwise, in which the Bantu approach the Hamites gradually fade as we proceed westward through the Congo basin, while in the east, among the tribes to the west of Tanganyika and on the upper Zambezi, " transitional " forms of culture are found.
Farther north the western depression, sometimes known as the Central African trough or Albertine rift-valley, is occupied for more than half its length by water, forming the four lakes of Tanganyika, Kivu, Albert Edward and Albert, the first-named over 400 m.
As a rule the lakes which occupy portions of the great rift-valleys have steep sides and are very deep. This is the case with the two largest of the type, Tanganyika and Nyasa, the latter of which has depths of 430 fathoms. Others, however, are shallow, and hardly reach the steep sides of the valleys in the dry season.
The periodic fluctuations in the level of Lake Tanganyika are such that its outflow is intermittent.
Divergent opinions have been held as to the mode of origin of the East African lakes, especially Tanganyika, which some geologists have considered to represent an old arm of the sea, dating from a time when the whole central Congo basin was under water; others holding that the lake water has accumulated in a depression caused by subsidence.
But signs of their former presence are not wanting as far north as Lake Tanganyika, and even, it is rumoured, still farther north.
On Tanganyika and 2500 ft.
An overland telegraph wire connects Cape Town and Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, via Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
Rounding the south end of Lake Nyasa, Livingstone struck in a north-northwest direction for the south end of Lake Tanganyika, over country much of which had not previously been explored.
The Chambezi was crossed on the 28th of January, and the south end of Tanganyika reached on the 31st of March.