By rail northwest of the city of Mexico, and is connected by rail with Tampico on the Gulf of Mexico.
Railway communication is provided by the Mexican National which crosses the northern end of the state, the Belgian line from Monterrey to Tampico, and a branch of the Mexican Central from San Luis Potosi to Tampico.
The capital of Tamaulipas is Ciudad Victoria (pop. in 1900, 10,086), a small sierra town on the Monterrey and Tampico railway about 120 m.
Among other towns in the state may be mentioned: Matamoros, on the Rio Grande; Tampico (q.v.), on the Panuco, the principal port of the state; Tula (6935(6935 in 1900); Jaumave (about 10,000 in 1900, chiefly Indians), 38 m.
Besides Mexican or Vera Cruz jalap, a drug called Tampico jalap has been imported for some years in considerable quantity.
It grows in Mexico along the mountain range of the Sierra Gorda in the neighbourhood of San Luis de la Paz, from which district it is carried down to Tampico, whence it is exported.
The gathering and preparation of "ixtle" fibres from the agave and yucca forms another important industry, the fibre being sent to Tampico for export.
C. de Monterrey al Golfo Mexicano) runs from Tampico N.N.W.
South of Tampico, iiowever, they are concentrated in a single lofty range.
Long) and Chairel (near Tampico) in Tamaulipas.
Of the principal ports on this coast, Matamoros, Tampico, Tuxpan, Coatzacoalcos and Frontera are on rivers, which are obstructed by bars.
Tampico and Coatzacoalcos, however, have been improved by breakwaters or jetties, and the deepening of the Channels across the bars, into safe and commodious harbours.
The principal cities of Mexico, other than the capitals above mentioned, are as follows, the populations being those of 1900 except when otherwise stated: Acapulco (pop. 4932), a famous port on the Pacific coast in Guerrero, which was wrecked by the earthquake of 1909; Carmen, or Laguna de Terminos (about 6000), a thriving commercial town and port on the Gulf coast in Campeche; Celaya (2 5,5 6 5), a railway centre and manufacturing town of Guanajuato; Ciudad Guzman, or Zapotlan (about 17,500), an interesting old town of Jalisco; Cholula (about 9000), an ancient native town of Puebla, widely known for its great pyramid; Comitan (9316), the commercial centre of Chiapas; Cordoba (7974 in 1895), a picturesque Spanish town in the sierras of Vera Cruz; Cuautla (6269), the centre of a rich sugar-producing district of Morelos; Guaymas (8648), a flourishing port of Sonora on the Gulf of California; Leon (62,623), the largest city in Guanajuato and distinguished for its commercial activity, manufactures and wealth; Linares (20,690), the second city of Nuevo Leon in size and importance; Matamoros (8347), a prominent commercial centre and river port of Tamaulipas; Mazatlan (17,852), the foremost Mexican port on the Pacific coast; Orizaba (32,894), a city of Vera Cruz famous for its delightful climate and picturesque surroundings; Parral (14,748), a well-known mining centre of southern Chihuahua; San Cristobal (about 16,00o), once capital of Chiapas and rich in historical associations; Tampico (16,313), a Gulf port and railway terminus of Tamaulipas; Tehuantepec (10,386), the largest town on the Tehuantepec railway in Oaxaca; Vera Cruz (29,164), the oldest and best known Gulf port of Mexico.
Important branches of these lines extend to Tampico on the Gulf coast, to Manzanillo on the Pacific coast, and westward and southward into Michoacan and Guerrero, with a coast terminus at or near Acapulco.
Monterrey is connected with Tampico by a Belgian line known as the F.C. de Monterrey al Golfo Mexicano, and the capital is to have direct connexion with the Pacific, other than the F.C. Interoceanico, by a line through Cuernavaca and Iguala to the coast.
The larger ports for foreign trade are Vera Cruz, Tampico, Progreso, Carmen and Coatzacoalcos on the Gulf coast, and Guaymas, La Paz, Mazatlan, Manzanillo, San Blas, Acapulco and Salina Cruz on the Pacific coast.
Some of these - Vera Cruz, Tampico, Coatzacoalcos, Salina Cruz, Manzanillo and Mazatlan - have been greatly improved with costly port works.
The " ixtle " fibres shipped from Tampico and Chiapas are all obtained from the agaves and yuccas found growing wild.
Railway communications are provided by the Mexican National with the United States, with the national capital and southern Mexico, and with Matamoros, and by the Belgian line with Tampico on the Gulf coast, and with Trevino, or Venadito, on the Mexican International line, which gives access to the iron deposits of Durango.
With the natives south of the latitude of Tampico there was little trouble after the Mixton War (in Guadalajara) in 1540-1562, save for occasional risings in Yucatan, Tehuantepec, and in 1711 in the Nayarit mountain region west of Zacatecas, and Tamaulipas was conquered in 1748; but the wild Indians of Sonora and New Mexico gave constant trouble to the missions and outlying settlers.
G P Y g the century the ports of Yucatan and Central America were frequently raided, and in 1682 Tampico suffered a like disaster; in May 1683 Vera Cruz itself was captured through stratagem by two buccaneers, Van Horn and Laurent, who plundered the town for ten days, committed shocking outrages, and escaped as the Spanish fleet arrived.
Meanwhile, attacks on Spanish ships off Cuba by a Mexican squadron, commanded by an American, David Porter, had induced Spain to send an expedition to reconquer Mexico (1829) which was checked at Tampico by Santa Anna.
The same is true of the petroleum deposits in Tamaulipas, near Tampico, and in southern Vera Cruz.