In 1871 he was prominent in the re-organization of Tammany after the fall of the "Tweed Ring"; from 1875 until the end of 1886 (except in 1879-1881) he was a representative in Congress; in 1876 he left Tammany for the County Democracy; in the Hayes-Tilden campaign of that year he was chairman of the Democratic National Committee, and in Congress he was one of the House members of the joint committee which drew up the famous Electoral Count Act providing for the Electoral Commission.
In 1886 he was elected mayor of New York City, his nomination having been forced upon the Democratic Party by the strength of the other nominees, Henry George and Theodore Roosevelt; his administration (1887-1888) was thoroughly efficient and creditable, but he broke with Tammany, was not renominated, ran independently for re-election, and was defeated.
As governor he devoted his energies to the construction of the canal, but the opposition to his administration, led by Martin Van Buren and Tammany Hall, became so formidable by 1822 that he declined to seek a third term.
State Assembly by the Tammany leader of the district in which he lived.
Upon a platform which called for radical reforms in the administrative departments, the civil service, and the national finances, Cleveland was nominated for president, despite the opposition of the strong Tammany delegation from his own state.
In 1868 Tammany Hall, then under the rule of William M.
Tammany and Hoffman were again victorious in 1870; but in 1871 the New York Times disclosed the magnitude of Tammany's thefts, amounting in the erection of the New York county court house alone to almost $8,000,000, and Tweed and his " Ring " were crushed in consequence.
The president's uncle, Robert Barnwell Roosevelt (1829-1906), was a New York lawyer, New York state fish commissioner in 1866-68, a member of the Committee of Seventy which exposed the corruption of Tammany in New York City, a Democratic member of the national House of Representatives in 1871-73, U.S. minister to the Netherlands in 1888, and author of works on American game birds and fish.
Hewitt, the Tammany candidate, and received a smaller vote than Henry George, the candidate of the United Labor party.
Although he was not the founder of Tammany Hall, he began the construction of the political machine upon which the power of that organization is based.
He was an antiTammany man and was associated with the group that successfully opposed the Tammany candidate for the U.S. Senate in the session of 1911-2.
In 1892 he succeeded Edward Hagan as Tammany leader of the 18th assembly district, and from that time his political power grew rapidly.
In 1902 he succeeded Richard Croker, on the latter's retirement, as leader of Tammany Hall, a position he continued to hold for a longer period than any of his predecessors.
Thereupon William Jennings Bryan, who had looked with favour upon Clark, declared that he would not support him so long as he was backed by Tammany, threw his influence on the side of Woodrow Wilson and secured his nomination.
16 City, where he eventually became a member of Tammany Hall and active in its politics.
After the fall of John Kelly he became the leader of Tammany Hall (q.v.), and for some time almost completely controlled the organization.
Shepard, in 1901, he resigned from his position of leadership in Tammany, and retired to a country life in England and Ireland.
In 1895 he spoke for the Fusion anti-Tammany ticket in New York City.
The struggle fused with the personal contests of two men, rivals for the United States Senate, William McKendree Gwin (1805-1885, United States senator, 1850-1861), the leader of the pro-slavery party, and David Colbreth Broderick (1819-18J9), formerly a leader of Tammany in New York, and after 1857 a member from California of the United States Senate, the champion of free labour, who declared in 1860 for the policy of the Republican party.