(2) (From Tamil kasu, Sinhalese kasi, a small coin, adopted by Portuguese as caixa, a box, and similarly assimilated in English to "cash" above), a name given by English residents in the East to native coins of small value, and particularly to the copper coinage of China, the native name for which is tsien.
Its medieval history consists of struggles between the native sovereigns and Tamil invaders.
His father Dhatu Sena, a country priest, had, after many years of foreign oppression, roused his countrymen, in 459, to rebellion, led them to victory, driven out the Tamil oppressors, and entered on his reign as a national hero.
Early in the 18th century it printed editions in Arabic, and promoted the first versions of the Bible in Tamil and Telugu, made by the Danish Lutheran missionaries whom it then supported in south India.
It suffered much during the earlier Tamil invasions, and was finally deserted as a royal residence in A.D.
Worked through the Moravian and Basel societies until 1862, when it began independent work and concentrated on the Tamil population of South India.
Though in all probability a Tamil by birth, he declares, in the opening lines of those of his works that have been edited, that he followed the tradition of the Great Minster at Anuradhapura in Ceylon, and the works themselves confirm this in every respect.
Just as two centuries earlier the Jesuits at Madura, in the extreme south, composed works in Tamil, which are still acknowledged as classical by native authors, so did the Baptist mission at Serampur, near Calcutta, first raise Bengali to the rank of a literary dialect.
The followers of Ramanuja have split into two sects, a northern one, recognizing the Vedas as their chief authority, and a southern one, basing their tenets on the Nalayir, a Tamil work of the Upanishad order.
Pendent, but no early records survive, the inscriptions of the dynasty being of late date, while the long lists of kings in Tamil literature are untrustworthy.