And comprises the valleys of Acari, Atequipa, Atico, Ocona, Majes or Camana, Quilca, with the interior valley of Arequipa, Tambo, Ilo or Moquegua, Ite or Locumba.
The coast-valleys through which they flow, especially those of Majes and Locumba, are famous for their vineyards, and in the valley of Tambo there are extensive olive plantations.
The Vilcamayu rises on the Knot of Vilcanota, flows north through a lovely valley, received the Yanatilde and Paucartambo on its right hank, and, uniting with the Tambo, forms the Ucayali.
The second-class ports are Tumbez, Talara, Pimentel, Chimbote, Samanco, Casma, Huacho, Cerro-Azul, Tambo de Mora Lomas and Chala, on the coast, Puno on Lake Titicaca, and Leticia on the Amazon near the western mouth of the Javary, Callao (qv.) is the chief port of the republic and monopolizes the greater part of its foreign trade.
Remains of a similar character are found at Huaraz in the north of Peru, and at Cuzco, 011antay-tambo and Huinaque between Huaraz and Tiahuanaco.
According to Whymper, the tambo of Chuquipoquio, at the foot of Chimborazo, is 11,704 ft., and the hacienda of Pedregal, near Iliniza, 11,629 ft., both being permanently occupied.
Other towns of the department, with their estimated populations in 1906, are: Tumbes, or Tumbez (2300), the most northern port of Peru, on the Gulf of Guayaquil, celebrated as the place where Pizarro landed in 1531; Paita; Sechura (6450), on Sechura Bay in the southern part of the department, with exports of salt and sulphur; Sullana (5300), an inland town with railway connexions in the fertile Chira valley; Morropon (3800) on the upper Piura; Huancabamba, the centre of a tobacco district in the mountains; and Tambo Grande (6100) and Chulucanas (4600), both in the fertile Piura valley above the capital.