The material thus accumulated, both halakhic and agadic, forming a commentary on and amplification of the Mishnah, was eventually written down under the name of Gemara (from gemar, to learn completely), the two together forming the Talmud (properly "instruction").
In the Palestinian Talmud (Yerushalmi) the gemara of the 5th order (Qodashim) and of nearly all the 6th (Tohoroth) is missing, besides smaller parts.
In the Babylonian Talmud (Babhli) there is no gemara to the smaller tractates of Order r, and to parts of ii., iv., v., vi.
Babhli is not only greater in bulk than Yerushalmi, but has also received far greater attention, so that the name Talmud alone is often used for it.
As being a constant object of study numerous commentaries have been written on the Talmud from the earliest times till the present.
Since the introduction of printing, the Talmud is always cited by the number of the leaf in the first edition (Venice, 1520, &c.), to which all subsequent editions conform.
In order to facilitate the practical study of the Talmud, it was natural that abridgements of it should be made.
In a different department there is the first Talmud lexicon (`Arukh) now lost, by Zemah ben Paltoi, Gaon of Pumbeditha in the 9th century.
1034), was a voluminous writer on law, translated the Pentateuch into Arabic, commented on much of the Bible, and composed an Arabic introduction to the Talmud, of which the existing Hebrew introduction (by Samuel the Nagid) is perhaps a translation.
In Italy appeared the invaluable Talmud-lexicon (`Arukh) by Nathan b.
1050) wrote a commentary on (probably all) the Talmud, and one now lost on the Pentateuch.
Hananeel's contemporary Nissim ben Jacob, of Kairawan, who corresponded with Hai Gaon of Pumbeditha as well as with Samuel the Nagid in Spain, likewise wrote on the Talmud, and is probably the author of a collection of Ma`asiyyoth or edifying stories, besides works now lost.
Some of his poems are extant, and an Introduction to the Talmud mentioned above.
Of the Talmud he is even now indispensable.
He commented on all the Bible and on nearly all the Talmud, has been himself the text of several super-commentaries, and has exercised great influence on Christian exegesis.
Maimonides also wrote an Arabic commentary on the Mishnah, soon afterwards translated into Hebrew, commentaries on parts of the Talmud (now lost), and a treatise on Logic. His breadth of view anti- and his Aristotelianism were a stumbling-block to the orthodox, and subsequent teachers may be mostly classified as Maimonists or anti-Maimonists.
1344), called Ralbag, the great commentator on the Bible and Talmud, in philosophy a follower of Aristotle and Averroes, known to Christians as Leo Hebraeus, wrote also many works on halakhah, mathematics and astronomy.
According to the Talmud, he warned her " to fear neither the Pharisees nor their opponents but the hypocrites who do the deed of Zimri and claim the reward of Phinehas: " the warning indicates his justification of his policy in the matter of the crucifixions.
The legal reforms which they introduced tended for the most part to mercy, but the Talmud refers to one case which is an exception: false witnesses were condemned to suffer the penalty due to their victim, even if he escaped.
There is a story of a priest named Onias preserved both by Josephus and in the Talmud, which throws some light upon the indecision of the religious in the period just reviewed.
There is a tradition in the Talmud which illustrates his popularity.
In 553 he interdicted the use of the Talmud (which had then not long been completed), and the Byzantine emperors of the 8th and 9th centuries passed even more intolerant regulations.
The Talmud shows the influence of that law in many points, and may justly be compared to it as a monument of codification based on great principles.
The Palestinian Talmud was completed in the 4th century, but the better known and more influential version was compiled in Babylonia about 500.
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
Jewish tradition had reason to remember these formidable Palmyrenes in the Roman armies; according to the Talmud 80,000 of them assisted at the destruction of the first temple, 8000 at that of the second !
This figure, corresponding to the four hundred years of Egyptian bondage, occurs also in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 99a).
But this is the only passage; the Talmud has no fixed doctrine on the point.
It has " had a greater influence on the development of the Jewish mind than almost any other book after the completion of the Talmud " (ibid.).
Though he failed to rise to real distinction he earned a place by his criticism of the Talmud among those who prepared the way for the new learning in Judaism.
References in the Jewish Talmud show that this city still continued to exist at and after the commencement of our era; but according to Arabian writers, at the time when the Arab city of Bagdad was founded by the caliph Mansur, there was nothing on that site except an old convent.
As a teacher he was one of the first to discriminate between the various strata in rabbinic records; to him was due the revival of interest in the older Midrash and in the Palestinian Talmud, interest in which had been weak for some centuries before his time.
He worked intensely on the Talmud and contributed no less than 190 papers to Chambers's Encyclopaedia, in addition to essays in Kitto's and Smith's Biblical Dictionaries, and articles in periodicals.
His Literary Remains, edited by Lady Strangford, were published in 1874, consisting of nineteen papers on such subjects as "The Talmud," "Islam," "Semitic Culture," "Egypt, Ancient and Modern," "Semitic Languages," "The Targums," "The Samaritan Pentateuch," and "Arabic Poetry."
Though indeed we might look nearer home than the Talmud for similar absurdities; most Puritan communities could furnish strange freaks of Sabbatarian casuistry.
In the Talmud they appear as K7nnl 'ml'.
All the passages referring to Jesus in the Talmud are given by Laible, Jesus Christus im Talmud, with an appendix, ” Die talmudischen Texte," by G.
Streane (Jesus Christ in the Talmud, 1893).
Meyer, entitled Jesus, Jesu Jiinger and das Evangelium im Talmud and verwandten jiidischen Schriften, to which also a good bibliography of the subject is prefixed.
Two forms of Western Aramaic survive: the Jerusalem form of the dialect, in the Aramaic portions of Daniel and Ezra; and the Galilean, in isolated expressions in the Talmud (3rd century), and in a fragmentary 5th century translation of the Bible.
That it was proper to wear special garments (or at least to rearrange one's weekday clothes) on the Jewish sabbath was recognized in the Talmud, and Mahommedans, after discussing at length the most suitable raiment for prayer, favoured the use of a single simple garment (Bukhari, viii.).
Even imitation of the style of the Talmud has also been accounted sacrilege.
In its original context, that of the Jerusalem Talmud, 12 the passage refers to the Greek translation of Aquila.
With the exception of this one reference, the Targum is always introduced in the Babylonian Talmud by the phrase " as we translate " (irn:inr_-r7), or " our Targum " (p' 1 ?urn): it is probable, therefore, that the name of the author, or authors, was unknown to the Babylonian Jews.
This impression is fully confirmed by (a) a comparison of the Talmud and later Midrashic works with which it has obvious points of contact, and (b) the historical allusions, such as the mention of Constantinople (Num.
Even in the time of the later Amoraim there is no mention of a written Palestinian Targum, though the official Babylonian Targum is repeatedly referred to in the Babylonian Talmud, in the Midrashim, and at times also by Palestinian Amoraim.
These conclusions were hotly contested by Johannes Buxtorf, being in conflict with the views of his father, Johannes Buxtorf senior, notwithstanding the fact that Elias Levita had already disputed the antiquity of the vowel points and that neither Jerome nor the Talmud shows any acquaintance with them.
The Talmud itself says that the judgment of capital cases was taken away from Israel forty years before the destruction of the Temple.
ISAIAH BERLIN (1725-1799), an eminent rabbi of Breslau; he was the author of acute notes on the Talmud which had their influence in advancing the critical study of that work.
Gray on Numbers xxii.-xxiv.; and the articles on "Balaam" (Bileam) in Hamburger's Realencyclopddie fiir Bibel and Talmud, Hastings' Bible Diet., Black and Cheyne's Encyclopaedia Biblica, Herozog-Hauck's Realencyklopddie.