1 Includes manufactories of glue, tallow, soap, perfumery, fertilizers, soda, &c.
The soap pan is charged with the tallow or other fat, and open steam is turned on.
A solitary tallow candle burned in the anteroom.
The production of wool was 300,000,000 lb, as in the grease; tallow, 493,000 cwt.; butter, 500,000 cwt.; cheese, 42,000 cwt.; and bacon and hams, 110,000 cwt.
The principal items of export are wool, skins, tallow, frozen mutton, chilled beef, preserved meats, butter and other articles of pastoral produce, timber, wheat, flour and fruits, gold, silver, lead, copper, tin and other metals.
Wool forms by far the largest export, and tallow, hides, bones and frozen mutton are also exported.
Ox and sheep tallow, with the addition of resin, are the primary materials for making the hard yellow or primrose soaps; these tallows are often adulterated.
In Germany tallow is the principal fat; in France olive oil occupies the chief place and the product is known as Marseilles or Castile soap; and in England tallow and palm oil are largely used.
There are tallow-melting houses, steam flourmills, candle and soap works, distilleries and tobacco factories.
There are soap, candle and tallow-works.
It has railwaycarriage works, cotton mills, steam flour mills, tallow works and quarries of limestone, and carries on an active trade in the export of wooden wares and in the import of grain, salt and fish, brought from the Volga governments.
1 21 Tallow wood.
The chief constituent of hard animal fats, such as beef and mutton tallow, &c.; also contained in many vegetable fats in smaller quantity.
Taganrog is an episcopal see of the Orthodox Greek Church, and has tanneries, tallow works and tobacco manufactures.
Soap appears to have been first made from goat's tallow and beech ash; in the 13th century the manufacture was established at Marseilles from olive oil, and in England during the next century.
By blending the coco-nut oil with other less saponifiable substances such as tallow, lard, cotton-seed oil, &c., and effecting the mixing and saponification at a slightly higher temperature, soaps are obtained which resemble milled toilet soaps.
So soon as the tallow is melted a quantity of weak lye is added, and the agitation of the injected steam causes the fat and lye to become intimately mixed and produces a milky emulsion.
As no blood is passing into the skin, the parts look like tallow, and thus attract the attention of the companions of the frost-bitten man, who perhaps has no thought of there being anything amiss.
Nearly one-third of the total value of the output represents winespirit, 23% tanneries, 18% tallow-melting and a considerable sum cigarette-making.
There are several large tobacco factories, flour mills, boot factories, sugar refineries, tanneries, tallow works, meat-preserving, glue and kerosene-oil factories and soap works.
The iron plates, having been carefully cleaned with sand and hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, and lastly with water, are plunged into heated tallow to drive away the water without oxidation of the metal.
It is an important centre of trade, and has tanneries, oil, flour, tallow, dye, soap and iron works; knitting is an important domestic industry.
Tallow candles as a substitute for whale-oil had been introduced, and the British market was closed by a duty of £r8 a ton on oil; a bounty offered by the Massachusetts legislature (£5 on white and £ 3 on yellow or brown spermaceti, and £2 on whale-oil per ton) was of slight assistance.
In depths down to ico fathoms the old-fashioned hand-lead, hollow below and " armed " with tallow, suffices to bring up a sample large enough to be recognizable.
Captain Phipps in 1773 secured samples of soft blue clay in this manner from a depth of 683 fathoms, but as a rule when sounding in great depths the sample is washed off the tallow before it can be brought on board.
He spent a year there and a year in a school for writing and arithmetic, and then at the age of ten he was taken from school to assist his father in the business of a tallow-chandler and soapboiler.
Straw or grass hats, straw mats, samshu (from the Shao-sing district), Chinese drugs, vegetable tallow and fish are among the chief exports; in 1904 the hats numbered 2,125,566, though in 1863 they had only amounted to 40,000, and the mats, mainly despatched to south China, average from 1,000,000, to 2,000,000.
There is an active trade in cattle, tallow, wools, skins, linseed, wine, corn and manufactured wares.
The chief factory industries come under the following heads: meat-freezing and tallow; tanning and wool-scouring; flax mills, saw-mills and grain-mills; boots and shoes; woollen and clothing; butter and Tons.
By boiling the livers at a somewhat high temperature, "unracked" cod oil is obtained, containing a considerable quantity of "stearine"; this fat, which separates on cooling, is sold as "fish stearine" for soapmaking, or as "fish-tallow" for currying.
The trade is very active and increasing, Kishinev being a centre for the Bessarabian trade in grain, wine, tobacco, tallow, wool and skins, exported to Austria and to Odessa.
A variety of industries, such as tallow-melting, soap-boiling, tile-making and brewing, are carried on.
The principal exports are fish, coarse black tea, cotton, vegetable tallow, sweet potatoes, and some wheat.
Bridgwater has a considerable coasting trade, importing grain, coal, wine, hemp, tallow and timber, and exporting Bath brick, farm produce, earthenware, cement and plaster of Paris.
There is a large trade in cattle with Petropavlovsk, and considerable export of grain, tallow, meat, hides, butter, game and fish, there being three large fairs in the year.
The exports are chiefly coal, sheep, tallow, wool, frozen meat and hides.
The trade is principally in cereals, skins, cow-hair, felt, tallow and salt.
Exempt from duty were now only refuse, raw products, scientific instruments, ships and literary and artistic objects; forty-four articles notably beer, vinegar, sugar, herrings, cocoa, salt, fish oils, ether, alum and sodawere unaffected by the change, while duties were henceforth levied upon a large number of articles which had previously been admitted dtity free, such as pig iron, machines and locomotives, grain, building timber, tallow; horses, cattle and sheep; and, again, the tariff law further increased the duties leviable upon numerous other articles.
Exports of less value, but worthy of special notice, are vegetables and wool, bones and tallow, also dairy machinery, and finally cement, the production of which is a growing industry.
It possesses a tobacco factory, candle-works and brick-kilns, and is an important river port, vessels discharging here their cargoes of corn, wine, wool, cattle, flour and tallow, to be conveyed by land to Odessa and to Yassy in Rumania.
The province, however, produces cotton, rice, ground-nuts, wheat, indigo, tallow and beans in abundance.
Staple products have changed with increasing knowledge of climatic conditions, of life-zones and of the fitness of crops; first hides and tallow, then wool, wheat, grapes (which in the early eighteen-nineties were the leading fruit), deciduous orchard fruits, and semi-tropical citrus fruits successively.
Hides and tallow were the sum and substance of Californian economy.
Cereals replaced hides and tallow in importance after 1848.
At them the neophytes worked up wool, tanned hides, prepared tallow, cultivated hemp and wheat, raised a few oranges, made soap, some iron and leather articles, mission furniture, and a very little wine and olive oil.
Besides, the hides and tallow yielded by the great herds of cattle at the missions were the support of foreign trade and did much toward paying the expenses of the government.
The city exports coal, wool, coke, horses, cattle, frozen meat, silver, lead, copper, tallow, hides and country produce.
Sometimes the patient is put to bed and the circulation is encouraged, especially on the surface of the body, by the use of hot spirits and water, or opium and ipecacuanha, while the outside of the nose is protected to a certain extent from loss of heat, and consequent irritation, by smearing it with a tallow candle or rubbing some ointment over the skin.
This question of arrest has been frequently raised in Europe: - in the case of Barbuit, a tallow-chandler, who from 1717 to 1735 acted as Prussian consul in London, and to whom the exemption conferred by statute on ambassadors was held not to apply; in the case of Cretico, the Turkish consul in London in 1808; in the case of Begley, the United States consul at Genoa, arrested in Paris in 1840; and in the case of De la Fuente Hermosa, Uruguay an consul, whom the Cour Royale of Paris in 1842 held liable to arrest for debt.
Wheat, barley, eggs, butter, oilcake, hides, tallow, leather, tobacco, rugs, feathers and other items add considerably to the total value of the exports, which increased from 14 million sterling in 1851-1860 to 8-14 millions sterling in 1901-1905.
The course of trade from 1880 to 1905 was as follows: The principal articles of export in 1905 were: Woo, £ 1 3,44 6, 260; gold, £3, o 53,33 1; silver and concentrates, £2,407,142;, lead, £I,072,858; butter, £817,820; coal, £I,565,602; copper, £I,280,599; breadstuffs, £1,345,589; leather and skins, £1,559,033; meats, £761,235; tallow, £464,330; timber, £353,265; tin, £466,049.
At a court-martial in 1857 Colonel Abbott, inspector general of ordnance, gave evidence that "the tallow might or might not have contained the fat of cows."
There are tanneries, tallow works, potteries, and a fair for cattle, while its trade makes it a rival to Orenburg and Troitsk.
In subsequent receipts saltpetre and turpentine make their appearance, and the modern "carcass composition," containing sulphur, tallow, rosin, turpentine, saltpetre and crude antimony, is a representative of the same class of mixtures, which became known to the Crusaders as Greek fire but were more usually called wildfire.
When separated and pressed, this deposit is known as whale tallow, and the oil from which it is removed is distinguished as pressed whale-oil; this, owing to its limpidity, is sometimes passed as sperm-oil.
Linen, leather, canvas, cordage, mats, tallow, potash and beer are manufactured.
Near the fire, fixed in a kind of holder, was a candle of tallow or raw beeswax.
Portions most liable to destruction, those parts between the tide marks, were found perfectly sound, and showed no signs of the ravages of marine organisms. Other valuable timber trees of the eastern portion of the continent are the blackbutt, tallow-wood, spotted gum, red gum, mahogany, and blue gum, eucalyptus; and the turpentine (Syncarpialaurifolia), which has proved to be more resistant to the attacks of teredo than any other timber and is largely used in wharf construction in infested waters.
There are flour-mills and a trade in cereals, wool, tallow and hides.
The town, which was founded in 1630, has tallow-melting and carries on a large trade in rye and rye flour.
The town is regularly built, with wide streets, some of them lined with trees, and is a wealthy town, which has become an industrial centre for the region especially on account of its steam flour-mills, in which it is second only to Odessa, its distilleries, mechanical workshops, tobacco and tallow factories and brickworks.
Gold and silver chasers keep their work firm by means of a cement of pitch and rosin, a little tallow, and brick-dust to thicken.
Vegetable tallow is also exported in large quantities from this part of Hu-peh.
On a banister post stood a tallow candle which guttered in the draft.
The town is also the centre of the tallow trade with Warsaw; considerable quantities of timber are floated down to this place.