Under the Tahirids (820-872) it became a flourishing town and rose to great importance during the Samanids (874-999).
Under the Tahirids of Khorasan, the Saffarids of Seistan and the Samanids of Bokhara, it flourished for some centuries in peace and progressive prosperity; but during the succeeding rule of the Ghaznevid kings its metropolitan character was for a time obscured by the celebrity of the neighbouring capital of Ghazni, until finally in the reign of Sultan Sanjar of Mer y about 1157 the city was entirely destroyed by an irruption of the Ghuzz, the predecessors, in race as well as in habitat, of the modern Turkomans.
The revolt was suppressed with great difficulty, and it came out that it was due to the secret instigation of Afshin, who hoped thereby to cause the fall of the Tahirids, and to take their place, with the ulterior object of founding an independent kingdom in the East.
The great power long wielded by the Tahirids, not only in the eastern provinces, but also at Bagdad itself, had been gradually diminishing, and came to an end in the year 873, when Ya`qub the Saffarid occupied Nishapur and imprisoned Mahommed b.
The Samanids had been governors of Transoxiana from the time of Mamun, and after the fall of the Tahirids, had been confirmed in this office by the caliph.
Tahir ultimately (820) i~eceived the ctntrnrnnrahin nf Vhnr~can wIlprc, lip ~, s,~,,l,-l;~ sct~hrich;na a practically independent Moslem dynasty (the Tahirids)i which ruled until about 873 in nominal obedience to Bagdad.
In the reign of the tenth caliph Motawakkil the Tahirids fell before Yakub b.
Arabic language and literature had gained too firm a footing to be supplanted at once by a new literary idiom still in its infancy; nevertheless the few poets who arose under the Tahirids and Saffgrids show already the germs of the characteristic tendency of all later Persian literature, which aims at amalgamating the enforced spirit of Islamism with their own Aryan feelings, and reconciling the strict deism of the Mahommedan religion with their inborn loftier and more or less pantheistic ideas; and we can easily trace in the few fragmentary verses of men like Iianzala, I~akim FirUz and Abu Salik those principal forms of poetry now used in common by Forms of all Mahommedan nationsthe forms of the qa~ida Eastern (the encomiastic, elegiac or satirical poem), the Poeti~.