Tagalog is the most important language; Ilocano, Pampango and Pangasinan are also used.
In 1908 there were thirtyfour newspapers and periodicals published in the cit y, of which thirteen were Spanish, fourteen were English, two were Chinese, and five were Tagalog; the principal dailies were the Manila Times, Cablenews American, El Comercio, El Libertas, El Mercantil, El Renacimiento and La Democracia.
The great bulk of the population, approximately 90%, is included in seven Christian tribes as follows: Visayan, 3,219,030; Tagalog, 1,460,695; Ilocano, 803,942; Bicol, 566,365; Pangasinan, 343,686; Pampangan, 280,984; and Cagayan, 159,648.
Born in Calainha, in the province of Luzon, of pure Tagalog parentage, he attended the newly reopened Jesuit university in Manila.
After attending the Tagalog school at Cavite he entered the Jesuit College in Manila but did not graduate.