The best-known passes are: (I) The Bibawan in the upper Wad Sias basin (4150 ft.); (2) the Gindafi, giving access from Marrakesh to Tarudant, rugged and difficult, but low; (3) the Tagharat, difficult and little used, leading to the Dra'a valley (11,484 ft.); (4) the Glawi (7600 ft.); (5) Tizi n 'Tilghemt (7250 ft.), leading to Tafilet (Tafilalt) and the Wad Ghir.
The ancient caravan route from Mauretania to the western Sudan crossed the lower Moroccan Atlas by the pass of Tilghemt and passed through the oasis of Tafilalt, formerly known as Sajilmasa [" Sigilmassa "1, on the east side of the Anti-Atlas.
Harris, who explored some of the southern slopes and crossed the Atlas at two points during his expedition to Tafilalt in 1894.
Tafilalt, or Tafilet (i.e.
Since 1648 it has been the custom of Moorish sultans to despatch superfluous sons and daughters to Tafilalt, and as the males are all sharifs, the fanaticism against Europeans is comprehensible.
The first European to visit Tafilalt was Rene Caillie (1828), the next Gerhard Rohlfs (1864).
In the same year the real chief of the sect, whose abode had been discovered by the caliph, fled from Salamia in Syria, where he lived, to Africa, and hid himself at Sijilmasa (in Tafilalt) in the far west, whence he reappeared ten years later at Kairawan as the Mandi, the first caliph of the Fatimites.4 Motadid died in Rabia II.