Next, south of the Great Northern, lay the Northern Pacific railway, starting on the west from Portland, Ore., and from Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., and extending east to Duluth, St Paul and Minneapolis by way of Helena, Mont.
Thus it will be observed that the five great cities of the Pacific coast-Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., Portland, Ore., and San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.-were already well supplied with railways; but the growth of the fertile region lying west of the transcontinental divide was most attractive to American railway builders; and railways serving this district, almost all of them in trouble ten years before, were showing great increases in earnings.
Before that time the St Paul had been a great local railway, operating primarily in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois; but by the construction of a long arm from the Missouri river to Spokane, Seattle and Tacoma, it became a transcontinental line of the first importance, avoiding the mistakes of earlier railway builders by securing a line with easy gradients through the most favourable regions.
These are Mount Rainier or Tacoma (14,363 ft.), Mount Adams (12,470 ft.), Mount Baker (10,827 ft.), Glacier Peak (10,436 ft.) and Mount St Helens (io,000 ft.).
- Puget Sound has formed a natural terminus for several transcontinental railways, the cities of Seattle and Tacoma on its shores affording outlets to the commerce of the Pacific for the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound transcontinental lines, which enter these cities with their own tracks.
The Northern Pacific sends a branch line south from Tacoma parallel with the coast to Portland on the Columbia river, where it meets the Southern Pacific and the Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company's line (a subsidiary of the Union Pacific), thus affording communication southwards, and up the valley of the Columbia to the east.
Seattle and Tacoma are among the four leading ports of the United States on the Pacific. Other harbours on Puget Sound of commercial importance are Olympia, Everett and Bellingham.
Whitman College (Congregational, 1866) at Walla Walla, Gonzaga College (Roman Catholic, 1887) at Spokane, Whitworth College (Presbyterian, 1890) at Tacoma and the University of Puget Sound (Methodist Episcopal, 1903) at Tacoma are institutions of higher learning maintained and controlled by their respective denominations.
Bancroft, The Northwest Coast (2 vols., San Francisco, 1884), and Oregon (2 vols., ibid., 1886-1888), Washington, Idaho and Montana (ibid., 1890); George Vancouver, Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean (3 vols., London, 1797); Elwood Evans, Washington (Tacoma, Washington, 1893); and E.
Montana is served by three transcontinental railways: the Great Northern traversing the north, the Northern Pacific traversing the south-east, south and south-west portions, and, north of the Northern Pacific, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound, an extension of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul to Seattle and Tacoma, practically completed in 1909; branch lines of the Great Northern, from the north, connect with the Northern Pacific and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound at Butte, and with the Northern Pacific at Laurel.
TACOMA, a city and sub-port of entry, and the county-seat of Pierce county, Washington, U.S.A., on Commencement Bay of Puget Sound, at the mouth of Puyallup river, about 80 m.
Tacoma is served by the Northern Pacific, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound, and the Tacoma Eastern railways; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway operates through trains to and from Missouri river points and Tacoma, over the Northern Pacific tracks, which are also used by the Great Northern and Oregon & Washington railways.
Tacoma is the starting-point of steamship lines to Alaska, to San Francisco, and to Seattle, Port Townsend, Olympia, Victoria, and other ports on Puget Sound.
Tacoma is the seat of Whitworth College (1890, Presbyterian), the University of Puget Sound (1903, Methodist Episcopal), the Annie Wright Seminary (1884), a boarding and day school for girls, and the Pacific Lutheran Academy and Business College.
The Tacoma High School has an excellent stadium for athletic contests, seating 25,000.
Tacoma is a sub-port of entry in the Puget Sound Customs district (of which Port Townsend is the official port), which is second only to San Francisco on the Pacific coast in the volume of foreign trade.
In the value of manufactured product the city was fourth in the state in 1905 (being passed only by Tacoma, Seattle and Spokane), with a value of $3,293,988; according to a census taken by the local chamber of commerce the value of the product in 1906 was $7,751,464.
In 1900 and in 1905 Tacoma ranked second among the cities of the state in the value of factory products.
The site of Tacoma was visited by Captain George Vancouver in 1792; Commencement Bay was surveyed for the United States government by Lieutenant Charles Wilkes in 1841, and the present city was founded by General Morton Matthew McCarver in 1868 and was at first called Commencement City.
That name was soon changed to Tacoma, said to be a corruption of Ta-ho-ma or Ta-ho-bet, Indian terms meaning "greatest white peak," the name of the peak (14,526 ft.), also called Mt.