Its area in 1906, including Tacna and Arica, and other disputed territories occupied by neighbouring states, was officially estimated.
With Chile the de jure line is that of the Camarones ravine which separated the old department of Moquegua (including the provinces of Tacna and Arica) from that of Tarapaca.
(5) The Arequipa and Tacna section extends over 350 m.
Sama, Tacna, and Azapa or Arica.
Garland, Peru in 1906, Lima, 1907), which gave the population as 3,547,829, including Tacna (8000).
This is exclusive of Tacna and its 3 provinces.
The principal conditions imposed by Chile were the absolute cession by Peru of the province of Tarapaca, and the occupation for a period of ten years of the territories of Tacna and Arica, the ownership of these districts to be decided by a popular vote of the inhabitants of Tacna and Arica at the expiration of the period named.
The principal political problem before the government of Peru was the ownership of the territories of Tacna and Arica.
It was not so much the value of Tacna and Arica that put difficulties in the way of a settlement as the fact that the national pride of the Peruvians ill brooked the idea of permanently losing all claim to this section of country.
ARICA (SAN MARCOS DE ARICA), a town and port of the Chilean-governed province of Tacna, situated in 18° 28' 08" S.
It is the port for Tacna, the capital of the province, 38 m.
The other two provinces (Tacna and Arica) were held for indemnity by Chile after the war of1879-1883with the understanding (treaty of Ancon, March 8, 1884) that at the expiration of ten years a plebiscite should be taken in the two provinces to determine whether they should remain with Chile, or return to Peru - the country to which they should be annexed to pay the other Io,000,000 pesos.
TACNA, a northern province of Chile, in dispute with Peru from 1893 onwards, bounded N.
There are a few fertile spots near the mountains, where mountain streams afford irrigation and potable water, and support small populations, but in general Tacna is occupied for mining purposes only.
There is one railway in the province, running from the city of Tacna to Arica, and in 1910 another from Arica to La Paz, Bolivia, was under construction by the Chilean government.
The province consists of two departments, Tacna and Arica, which once formed part of the Peruvian department of Moquegua.
Its capital is Tacna (pbp. 18 95, 94 18; 1902, estimated 11,504), a small inland town 48 m.
Existence is made possible in this oasis by a small mountain stream, also called Tacna, which supports a scanty vegetation.
Tacna was captured by a Chilean force under General Baquedano on the 27th of May 1880.
At the close of the war between Chile and Peru (1879-1883), the terms of the treaty of Ancon (signed by representatives of the two countries on the 10th of October 1883) were practically dictated by Chile, and by one of the provisions the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica were to be occupied and exploited by Chile for a period of ten years, when a plebiscite should be taken of their inhabitants to determine whether they would remain with Chile or return to Peru, the country acquiring the two provinces in this manner to pay the other $10,000,000.
(For map see Argentina.) It extends from the northern boundary of the province of Tacna, about 17° 25' S., to Cape Horn at the extreme southern point of the Fuegian archipelago in 55° 58' 40" S., with an extreme meridian length of 2661 m., and with a coast line considerably exceeding that figure owing to a westward curve of about 31° and an eastward trend south of 50° S.
Under the treaty of Ancon (20th October 1883) Chile was to retain possession of the provinces of Tacna and Arica belonging to the Peruvian department of Moquegua for a period of ten years, and then submit " to popular vote whether those territories are to belong to Chile or Peru."
This arbitrary retention of Tacna and Arica, which became the province of Tacna under Chilean administration, removed the frontier still farther north, to the river Sama, which separates that province from the remaining part of the Peruvian department of Moquegua.
The Chilean Andes between Tacna and Valdivia are crossed by 24 passes, the majority of them at elevations exceeding 10,000 ft.
The principal rivers of this region are Sama (which forms the provisional boundary line with Peru), Tacna, Camarones, Loa, Copiapo, Huasco, Elqui, Limari and Choapa.
The first is an arid desert absolutely barren along part of the coast, between Tacna and Copiapo, but with a coarse scanty vegetation near the Cordilleras along watercourses and on the slopes where moisture from the melting snows above percolates through the sand.
Extensive deposits of the salt (called caliche in its crude, impure state) in the provinces of Tacna, Tarapaca, Antofagasta and Atacama owe their existence to the rainless character of the climate.
The judicial power consists of a Supreme Court of Justice of seven members located in the national capital, which exercises supervisory and disciplinary authority over all the law courts of the republic; six courts of appeal, in Tacna, Serena, Valparaiso, Santiago, Talca and Concepcion; tribunals of first instance in the department capitals; and minor courts, or justices of the peace, in the subdelegacies and districts.
By the terms of this treaty Peru ceded to Chile unconditionally the province of Tarapaca, and the provinces of Tacna and Arica were placed under Chilean authority for the term of ten years, the inhabitants having then to decide by a general vote whether they remained a part of Chile or elected to belong once more to Peru.
The problems to be solved were the frontier difficulty with Argentina, the question of the possession of Tacna and Arica with Peru, and the necessity of fulfilling the obligation contracted with Bolivia to give that country a seaport on the Pacific coast.
The treaty made with the former country in 1893 was not ratified, as it was thought to concede too much to Peru, and the subsequent ad referendum treaty was rejected on account of Peru claiming that only Peruvians, and not all residents, should have the right to vote in the plebiscite to be taken by the terms of the treaty of 1883 for the possession of Tacna and Arica.
From this point the line follows the summits of the Cordillera Silillica north to the Cerro Paquiza, on the Tacna frontier, and to the Nevado Pomarape, near the frontier of Peru.
General Daza, who should have cooperated with Buendia, turned back, on receiving news of the Peruvian defeat, and led the Bolivian troops to Tacna in a hasty and somewhat disorderly retreat.
The troops at Tacna, indignant at the inglorious part they had been condemned to play by the incompetence or cowardice of their president, deprived him of their command and elected Colonel Camacho to lead them.
By this treaty Chile declared that if, in consequence of the plebiscite (to take place under the treaty of Ancon with Peru), or by virtue of direct arrangement, she should " acquire dominion and permanent sovereignty over the territories of Tacna and Arica, she undertakes to transfer them to Bolivia in the same form and to the same extent as she may acquire them "; the republic of Bolivia paying as an indemnity for that transfer $5,000,000 silver.
Chile also pledged herself to use her utmost endeavour, either separately or jointly with Bolivia, to obtain possession of Tacna and Arica.
The long-standing dispute with Chile with regard to its occupation of the former Bolivian provinces of Tacna and Arica under the Parto de Tregna of the 4th of April 1884 was more difficult to arrange satisfactorily.
In 1895 there had been some prospect of Chile conceding an outlet on the sea in exchange for a recognition of the Chilean ownership of Tacna and Arica.