The railway by Batoum to Baku by way of Tiflis has tended greatly to turn the channel of commerce from Trebizond into Russian territory, since it helps to open the route to Erivan, Tabriz and the whole of Persia.
He was treated with honour and hospitality, and returned by way of Samarkand and Tabriz, to his own territory.
Meshed had formerly a great transit trade to Central Asia, of European manufactures, mostly Manchester goods, which came by way of Trebizond, Tabriz and Teheran; and of Indian goods and produce, mostly muslins and Indian and green teas, which came by way of Bander Abbasi.
The Erivan line is being continued into Persia, namely, to Tabriz via Julfa on the Aras.
641 there are no remains of mosques there earlier than the 13th century, and the oldest example at Tabriz is evidently, as far as its plan is concerned, a copy of a Byzantine church, departing entirely therefore from the normal plans.'
His first spiritual instructor was Sayyid Burhan-uddin Husaini of Tirmidh, one of his father's disciples, and, later on, the wandering Stiff Shams-uddin of Tabriz, who soon acquired a most powerful influence over Jalal-uddin.
Selections from Jalal-uddin's diwan (of ten styled Diwan-i-Shams-i-Tabriz) are translated in German verse by V.
His route to the East lay by Trebizond and Erzerum to Tabriz and Sultanieh, in all of which places the order had houses.
From the Cilician port of Lajazzo he started on the great high road to Tabriz in north Persia.
In and near Tabriz he preached for several months, after which he proceeded to Bagdad via Mosul and Tekrit.
He commanded the Persian expedition in 1723 and captured Tabriz in 1725, resigning his office in 1726.
The administrative divisions are as follows: - Tabriz and environs; Uskuh; Deh-Kharegan; Maragha; Miandoab; Saujbulagh; Sulduz; Urmia; Selmas; Khoi; Maku; Gerger; Merend; Karadagh; Arvanek; Talish; Ardebil; Mishkin; Khalkhal; Hashtrud; Garmrud; Afshar; Sain Kaleh; Ujan; Sarah.
TABRIZ, the capital of the province of Azerbaijan in Persia, situated in the valley of the Aji Chai, "Bitter River," at an elevation of 4400 ft.
Based on a census taken in 1871 the population of Tabriz was in 1881 estimated at 165,000, and is now said to be about 200,000.
The popular etymology of the name Tabriz from tab=fever, riz = pourer away (verb, rikhtan = pour away, flow; German rieseln?), hence "fever-destroying," is erroneous and was invented in modern times.
It is related that Zobeideh, the wife of Harun-al-Rashid, founded the town in 791 after recovering there from fever, but the earlier chronicles give no support to this statement, and it is nowhere recorded that Zobeideh ever visited Azerbaijan, and the name Tabriz was known many centuries before her time.
Among the ruins of old Tabriz the sepulchre of the Mongol king, Ghazan Khan (1295-1304), in a quarter once known as Shanb (generally pronounced Sham and Sham) i Ghazan, is no longer to be distinguished except as part of a huge tumulus.
1 Tabriz is celebrated as one of the most healthy cities in Persia.
Tabriz was for a long period the emporium for the trade of Persia on the west, but since the opening of the railway through the Caucasus and greater facilities for transport on the Caspian, much of its trade with Russia has been diverted to Astara and Resht, while the insecurity on the Tabriz-Trebizond route since 1878 has diverted much commerce to the Bagdad road.
According to consular reports the value of the exports and imports which passed through the Tabriz custom-house during the years 1867-73 averaged L593,800 and f1,226,660 (total for the year, I,820,460); the averages for the six years 1893-9 were £212,880 and £544,530.
For the year 1898-9 the present writer obtained figures directly from the books kept by the custom-house official at Tabriz, and although, as this official informed him, some important items had not been entered at all, the value of the exports and imports shown in the books exceeded that of the consular reports by about io per cent.
British, Russian, French, Turkish and Austrian consulates and a few European commercial firms are established at Tabriz; there are also post and telegraph offices.
Tabriz has suffered much from earthquakes, notably in 858, 1042 and 1721, each time with almost complete destruction of the city.
Both revolts were in progress when the Bab, with one of his devoted disciples, was brought from his prison at Chihriq to Tabriz and publicly shot in front of the arg or citadel.
Of Tabriz (120 by road), iI to 12 m.
If his campaigns were not always so wisely and prudently planned as those of some of his predecessors, they were in the main eminently fortunate, and resulted in adding to his dominions Belgrade, Budapest, Temesvar, Rhodes, Tabriz, Bagdad, Nakshivan and Rivan, Aden and Algiers, and in his days Turkey attained the culminating point of her glory.
Of Teheran, on the high road thence to Tabriz, at an elevation of 5180 ft.
Rising north of Teheran, the Kend and Kerej rivers, rising nrthwest of Teheran, the Shureh-rud (also called Abhar-rud), rising near Sultanieh on the road between Kazvin and Tabriz, and the Kara-su, which rises near Hamadan and is joined by the Zarinrud (also known as Do-ab), the Reza Chai (also called Mazdakanrud), the Jehrud River and the Kum-rud.
Towns.The principal cities of Persia with their populations as estimated in 1908 are: Teheran (280,000); Tabriz (200,000);
Commerce.The principal centres of commerce are Tabriz, Teheran, Resht, Meshed and Yezd; the principal, ports Bander Abbasi, Lingah, Bushire and Muhamrah on the Persian Gulf, and Astara, Enzeli, Meshed i Sar and Bander i Gez on the Caspian.
Man-i-Shah= 2 Tabriz mans = 1280, , = 12.98, ,
Man-i-Hashemi=i6 mans of 720, , = 116.80 Corn, straw, coal, &c., are sold by kharvar = 100 Tabriz mans =649 lb.
About three-fifths of this number belong to the diocese of Azerbaijan, with a bishop at Tabriz, and reside in the cities of Tabriz, KhoI, Selmas, Urmia and Maragha, and in about thirty villages close to the north-western frontier; the other two-fifths, under the diocese of Isfahan, with a bishop in Julfa, reside in Teheran, Hamadan, Julfa, Shiraz, Bushire, Resht, Enzeli and other towns, and in some villages in the districts of Chahar Mahal, Feridan, Barbarud, Kamareh, Kazaz, Kharakan, &c. Many Persian Armenians are engaged in trade and commerce, and some of their merchants dispose of much capital, but the bulk live on the proceeds of agriculture and are poor.
The religious missions ministering to their spiritual welfare are: (1) The board of foreign missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, which has six establishments in Persia: Urmia since 1835, Teheran since 1872, Tabriz since 1873, Hamadan since 1880, Resht since r902 and Kazvin since 1903.
The establishments of Tabriz and Urmia form the Western Persia Mission, those of Teheran, Hamadan, Resht and Kazvin the Eastern Persia Mission.
If, however, circumstances should be of a nature to require a second inquiry, it shall not take place without previous notice given to the minister, or the charg daffaires, or the consul, and in this case the business shall only be proceeded with at the supreme chancery of the shah at Tabriz or Teheran, likewise in the presence of a dragoman of the mission, or, of the consulate.
It has branches at Tabriz, Resht, Mesheol and other places.
Various Armenian firms, one with branches at many places in Persia and Russia, also do banking business, while various European firms at Tabriz, Teheran, Isfahan, Shiraz and Bushire, facilitate remittances between Europe and Persia.
The chief events of his reign were a successful war against Tatar invaders and the substitution of the new city of Sultania as capital ror Tabriz, which had been Ghazans headquarters.
Owais added Azerbaijan, Tabriz, and even Mosul and Diarbekr.
As regards his Persian possessions, he had some trouble in the north-west, where the Turkomans of Asia Minor, known as the Kara Kuyun,i or Black Sheep, led by Kara Yusuf2 and his sons Iskandar and Jahan Shah, had advanced upon Tabriz, the capital of Azerbaijan.
Kum and Tauris or Tabriz (then the capital) were also visited by the Italian envoys following in the royal suite; and the incidental notice of these cities, added to Contarinis formal statement that the extensive country of U~suncassan is bounded by the Ottoman Empire and by Caramania, and that Siras (Shiraz) is comprehended in it, proves that at least Azerbaijan, Irak, and the main part of the provinces to the south, inclusive of Fars, were within the dominions of the reigning monarch.
At the head of 16,000 men, he thoroughly routed his opponents, and, having cleared the way before him, marched straight upon Tabriz, which at once surrendered.
This last account is extremely probable, and would show that the young Turkoman had wished to make one grand effort to save Isfahan and Shiraz (with Kazvin and the neighboring country), these being, after the capital Tabriz, the most important cities of Uzun ~iasans Persia.
Ismail returned again to Tabriz (1501) and caused great rejoicings to be made on account of his victory.
Peace was concluded between the two sovereigns in 1590; but the terms were unfavourable to Persia, who lost thereby Tabriz and one or more of the Caspian ports.
The Turks seized on Tiflis, Tabriz and Hamadan, while Peter the Great, whose aid had been sought by the friendless Tahmasp, fitted out a fleet on the Caspian.2 The Russians occupied Shirvan, and the province of Gilan south-west of the Caspian;3 and Peter made a treaty with Tahmasp II.
There is,1 however, also shown, as a result of the Afghan intrusion and the impotency of the later Safawid kings, a long broad strip of country to the west, including Tabriz and Hamadan, marked conquests of the Turks, and the whole west shore of the Caspian from Astrakan to Mazandaran marked conquests of the czar of Muscovy; Makran, written Mecran, is designated a warlike independent nation.
A partition treaty had been signed between these two powers in 1723, by which the czar was to take Astarabad, Mazandaran, Gilan, part of Shirvan and Daghistan, while the acquisitions of the Porte were to be traced out by a line drawn from the junction of the Aras and Kur rivers, and passing along by Ardebil, Tabriz and Hamadan, and thence to Kerm~nshah.
Briefly, after successive gains and losses, not only Erivan was taken from Persia but Tabriz also, and finally, through the intervention of Sir John Macdonald, the English envoy, a new treaty was concluded at Turkmanchai, laying down the boundary between Russia and Persia.
Great excitement was caused in the summer of 1891 by the report that an English girl, Kate Greenfield, had been forcibly carried away from her mothers house at Tabriz by a Kurd.
The new shah, Muzaffarud-Din (born March 25, 1853), then governor-general of Azerbaijan, residing at Tabriz, was enthroned there on the day of his fathers death, and proceeded a few days later, accompanied by the British and Russian consuls, to Teheran, where he arrived on the 8th of June.
The Imperial Bank of Persia, which had already advanced a large sum of money, and thereby greatly facilitated the shahs early departure from Tabriz and enabled the grand vizier at Teheran to carry on the government, started buying up the copper coinage at all its branches and agencies.
The shah accordingly recalled Amin-ad-daulah from Tabriz (Feb.
Russian concessionnaires were given the right to build roads from Tabriz to Teheran (1902) and from Tabriz to Kazvin (1903); and the Russian Bank opened new branches in Seistanan example followed in 1903 by the Bank of Persia.
Meanwhile, civil war had broken out in the provin.ces; Kurdish raiders had sacked many villages near Tabriz; Persian brigands had attacked the Russian frontier-guards on the borders of Transcaucasia, and the indemnity demanded by the tsars government was not paid until several Persian villages had been burned by Russian troops.
Early in 1909, indeed, a Russian force of 2600 men was sent to watch events near Tabriz, and if necessary to intervene in favor of the Nationalists who held the town, and had for some months been besieged by the shahs troops.
Smaller quantities grown in Teheran, Tabriz and Kermanshah find their way to Smyrna, where it is said to be mixed with the local drug for the European market, the same practice being carried on at Constantinople with the Persian opium that arrives there from Samsun and Trebizond.
Arriving at Tabriz, then the chief city of Mongol Persia, and indeed of all Western Asia, Monte Corvino moved down to India to the Madras region or " Country of St Thomas, " from which he wrote home, in December 1291 (or 1292), the earliest noteworthy account of the Coromandel coast furnished by any Western European.