The custom of taboo was very fully developed.
While the Hebrew for sacrifice, rnr, makes the killing of the victim the central feature of the ceremony, the Latin word brings out the fact that an act of sacralization (see Taboo) is an essential element in many cases.
(c) Sacrifices may be classified into (i.) subjective or personal, where the sacrificer himself gains or loses sanctity or impurity; (ii.) objective, where the current of man y (see Taboo) is directed upon some other person or object, and only a secondary effect is produced on the sacrificer himself.
In primitive cults the distinction between sacred and unclean is far from complete or well defined (see Taboo); consequently we find two types of cathartic sacrifice - (i.) one to cleanse of impurity and make fit for common use, (ii.) the other to rid of sanctity and in like manner render suitable for human use or intercourse.
That the food-taboo against eating the flesh of a particular animal would prevail in the clan of which that animal was the deified totem-ancestor is obvious, and it would be a plausible theory to hold that the laws in question arose when the Israelite tribes were to be consolidated into a national unity (i.e.
The word holiness (qodesh) in primitive Hebrew usage partook of the nature of taboo, and came to be applied to whatever, whether thing or person, stood in close relation to deity and belonged to him, and could not, therefore, be used or treated like other objects not so related, and so was separated or stood apart.
She was at first left undisturbed, but by degrees the château itself became taboo, and her visitors found themselves punished heavily.
Hence the disastrous effects supposed to follow a breach of taboo; the offender has thrust his hand into the divine fire, which shrivels up and consumes him on the spot" (Frazer, The Golden Bough, i.
The official policy of Baron Kallay, for 20 years the administrator of Bosnia, was to taboo the name of Serb in the hope of creating a distinct " Bosnian " nationality.
Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
3 In the old ritual at Mecca, the man who wore his own garments must leave them in the sanctuary, as they had become " taboo "; hence the sacred circumambulation of the Ka`ba was performed naked (prohibited by Mahomet), or in clothes provided for the occasion.
The whole wide field of Jewish taboo naturally involves sacrilege as its reverse side.
Primitive Semitic customs recognize that when persons are laid under a ban or taboo (herem) restrictions are imposed on contact with them, and that the breach of these involves supernatural dangers.
They were feared, too, as ministers of the taboo and were entitled to pronounce a kind of excommunication for offences against its rules.
But, as Robertson Smith observes, "holiness is contagious, just as uncleanness is"; and common things and persons may become taboo, that is, so holy as to be dangerous and useless for daily life through the mere infection of holiness.
Thus in Syria one who touched a dove became taboo for one whole day, and if a drop of blood of the Hebrew sin-offering fell on a garment it had to be ritually washed off.
The food that is taboo must only be consumed by persons who are equally taboo or pure.
In New Ireland a carved chalk figure of the deceased, indicating the sex, is procured, and entrusted to the chief of a village, who sets it up in a funeral hut in the middle of a large taboo house adorned with plants.
In such cases the holiness or taboo (q.v.) is traditional, or anyhow not imparted at a given moment by human intervention.
Cursing is, equally with consecration, a taboo imposed on a thing or person.
It may be noted in consecration how nicely the taboo or contagion, whether of holiness or unholiness, can be localized.
Under taboo as late as 1819 women were to be put to death if they ate bananas, cocoa-nuts, pork, turtles or certain fish.
When Vancouver visited the islands in 1792, he left sheep and neat cattle, 3 protected by a ten years' taboo, and laid down the keel of a European ship for Kamehameha.
Was, for vicious and selfish reasons, to abolish taboo and idolatry throughout the islands.
Sometimes it is a "taboo" which has been broken and gives Death power over man.
The system of taboo was connected with their religious rites.
There were two ways by which things might become taboo: (I) by contact with anything belonging to the god, as his visible representation or his priest.
(2) Things were made taboo by being dedicated to the god; and it is this form of taboo which is still kept up. If, e.g., any one wishes to preserve his coco-nuts from being taken, he will put something upon the trees to indicate that they are sacred or dedicated.
They cannot then be used until the taboo is removed.
Disease and death were often connected with the violation of taboo, the offended gods thus punishing the offenders.
Performances in German are under a popular taboo, and they are never given in a theatre at Budapest.
The spirits also sometimes inhabit certain birds or fishes, which are then taboo, as food, to the family; but they will help to catch them for others.
Thus too it comes that the chiefs, and all belonging to them, are taboo as regards the common people.
There are various other subjects and occasions of taboo, but the institution has not the oppressive and all-pervading character which it has in Polynesia.
The ripening coco-nuts are taboo as long as the breadfruit lasts, thus securing the former for future use; or it is put on after a death, and the nuts thus saved are given to the family - a kindness to them, and a mark of respect for the dead.
It is the note of every great religious reformer, Moses, Buddha, Paul, Mani, Mahomet, St Francis, Luther, to enlighten and direct it to higher aims, substituting a true personal holiness for a ritual purity or taboo, which at the best was viewed as a kind of physical condition and contagion, inherent as well in things and animals as in man.
Certain animals and vegetables are taboo, i.e.
Such abstinences as the above, though based on taboo, that is, on a reluctance to eat the totem or sacred animal, are yet ascetic in so far as they involve much self-denial.
Primitive religions are like so many similar beads on a string; and the concern of the student of comparative religion is at this stage mainly with the nature of the string, to wit, the common conditions of soul and society that make, say, totemism, or taboo, very much the same thing all the savage world over, when we seek to penetrate to its essence.
The primitive notion that perhaps comes nearest to our " sacred," whilst it immediately underlies the meanings of the Latin sacer and sanctus, is that of a taboo, a Polynesian term for which equivalents can be quoted from most savage vocabularies.
On the one hand, since that which is tabooed is held to punish the taboo-breaker by a sort of mystic infection, taboo comes to stand for uncleanness and sin.
Primary and secondary senses of the term between them cover so much ground that it is not surprising to find taboo used in Polynesia as a name for the whole system of religion, founded as it largely is on prohibitions and abstinences.
Altogether, in mana we have what is par excellence the primitive religious idea in its positive aspect, taboo representing its negative side, since whatever has mana is taboo, and whatever is taboo has mana.
That which is taboo, for instance, the person of the king, or woman's blood, is poison or medicine according as it is manipulated, being inherently just n potentiality for wonder-working in any direction.
One spell is stronger than another, one taboo more inviolable than another.
Jevons (in An Introduction to the History of Religion, vii.) distinguishes between " things taboo," which have the mystic contagion inherent in them, and " things tabooed," to which the taboo-infection has been transmitted.
(1904), and " Is Taboo a Negative Magic?"
Tasmanian savages were crafty warriors and kangaroo-hunters, and the women climbed the highest trees by notching, in quest of opossums. Shell-fish and crabs were taken, and seals knocked on the head with clubs, but neither fish-hook nor fishing-net was known, and indeed swimming fish were taboo as food.
(1908), the story had its origin in a rite - the taboo of military spoils, which led to their being heaped up on consecrated ground that they might not be touched.