During the latter Sassanids it is seldom mentioned, and when the Arabs came to Khorasan (641-642) it was of so little importance that, as Tabari relates, it did not even have a garrison.
' See especially Hamza Isp., 38;Tabari, i.
Tabari, p. 8).
We know that at his time there were different petty kingdoms and usurpers in Persis; the principal dynasty is by Tabari called Bazrangi.
From a Pahlavi inscription we learn that he was the son (not, as the Greek authors and Tabari say, the grandson) of Shapur I., and succeeded his brother Hormizd (Ormizdas) I., who had only reigned a year.
Aong after this date, when all scholars drew mainly from books, the old forms were still kept up. Tabari, for example, when he cites a book expresses himself as if he had heard what he quotes from the master with whom he read the passage or from whose copy he transcribed it.
Madaini's History of the Caliphs is the best, if not the oldest, published before Tabari; but this book is known only by the excerpts given by later writers, particularly Baladhuri and Tabari.
Tabari and his contemporaries, senior and junior, such as Ibn Qutaiba, Ya`gubi, Dinawari, preserve to us a good part of the information about Persian history made known through such translations.'
All these histories are more or less thrown into the shade by the great work of Tabari (q.v.), whose fame has never faded from his own day to ours.
`Arib of Cordova made an abridgment, adding the history of the West and continuing the story to about 975.1 Ibn 1Vlashkawaih wrote a history from the creation to 980, with the purpose of drawing the lessons of the story, following Tabari closely, as far as his book is known, and seldom recurring to other sources before the reign of Moqtadir; what follows is his own composition and shows him to be a writer of talent.
Aater writers took Tabari as their main authority, but sometimes consulted other sources, and so add to our knowledge - especially Ibn al-Jauzi (d.
The chief historians after Tabari may be briefly mentioned in chronological order.
Especially Noldeke's Tabari, p. 450 seq.
By Cureton (1846) and translated into German by Haarbriicker (1851), and individual notes and excerpts by Tabari (loth cent.), Al-Biruni (IIth - cent.), and other Arabian and Persian historians.
Arab historians relate the foundation of Kairawan by Okba with miraculous circumstances (Tabari ii.
283 seq.); according to Tabari it must have been before 670.
The commencement of this king's reign has been fixed by Noldeke (Geschichte der Sassaniden aus Tabari, p. 423) as 4th August 438; and this date has subsequently been established by documentary evidence from the fact of the martyrdom of Pethion (see Hoffmann, Ausziige aus syrischen Akten persischer Mdrtyrer, p. 67).
6 See Noldeke's Tabari, p. 155, seq.
The great commentary of Tabari, A.D.
His Grammatik der neusyrischen Sprache, 1868, his III andeiische Grammatik, 1874, and his translations from the Arabian of Tabari, 1881-1882) is meant for specialists, many of his books are of interest to the general reader.
Noldeke's translation of Tabari (Geschichte der Perser and Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, 1890) and J.
28 f., 197 f.; Tabari, i.
Baladhuri 315 sq.; Tabari i.
But the majority were merely a band 1 Noldeke, Tabari, 246.
At a later period, the Abbasid caliph Mandi had the names of Ziyad and his descendants struck off the rolls of the Koreish; but, after his death, the persons concerned gained over the chief of the rolls office, and had their names replaced in the lists (see Tabari iii.
The Medinians, whose loyalty was suspected, were treated by him with severity; not a few manias (clients) were obliged to wear a leaden badge on their neck (Tabari, ii.
Tabari tells how he took the emperor Constantine prisoner in the year 114 (A.D.
1 Tabari iii.
1 "Dinars" in the text of Tabari iii.
Its narrations are principally preserved in Tabari, though there combined with numerous, Arabian traditions; also in the poetical adaptation of Firdousi.
Araber zur Zeit der Sassaniden, ans der arabischen Chronik des Tabari (1879, trans.
In foreign policy the problems under the Sassanid kings i List of kings (after Noldeke, Tabari, p. 435).
Tarikh-i- Tabari, the oldest prose work in modern Persian, is not merely remarkable from a philological point of view, it is also the classic model of an easy and simple style (French trans.
Zotenbergs Chronique de TabarI (Paris, 1867-1874); Jurjanis Wis u Rmin, ed.
Of the Arabic sources Tabari is the most important.
According to the Arab historian, Tabari, these were written on 12,000 cowhides, a statement confirmed by Masudi, who writes: Zartusht gave to the Persians the book called Avesta.