This massive swelling is cut into, between the Ektagh Altai and the eastern T`ien-shan, by the relative depression of Tarbagatai and Dzungaria, 1500 to 3000 ft.
In altitude; while to the south of the eastern T`ien-shan comes the Tarim depression, from 2200 to 3000 ft.
Of Yarkand, near the left bank of the Aksu river, which takes its origin in the T'ien-shan (Tian-shan) mountains and joins the Tarim.
It belongs to the series of oases (Uch-Turfan, Bai, Koucha, &c.) situated at the southern foot of the eastern T'ien-shan mountains.
In ascending the river a stranger's eye is first caught by the numerous huge ice-houses with high thatched roofs and by a tall white tower - the T'ien-feng-t'a or Ning-po pagoda or obelisk - which rises to a height of 160 ft.