220), and the T'ang (A.D.
This region is called the Chang-t'ang (Byang tang) or " Northern Plateau " by the people of Tibet.
There are still enormous glaciers about the head of the Brahmaputra, but the glacial epoch of the Chang-t'ang highlands has passed away, though comparatively recently.
The peculiar form of tussocky grass which prevails in the Pamirs is the characteristic feature of the Tibetan Chang-t'ang of the Tsaidam plains and of the bogs north-east of Lhasa.
Yet Tsaidam is geographically but a northern extension of the great Tibetan plateau, and in most of its essential physical features it is more closely allied to the Chang-t'ang of the south than to the great sandy depressions of Chinese Turkestan or Mongolia on the north.
In the annals of the T'ang dynasty it is said that the population of the country originated from the Bat-Kian or Fah Kiang; and, as the information collected in the first part of the notice concerning Tu-bat, afterwards Tu-ban, the modern Tu-fan, dates partly (as is proved by internal evidence) from a time anterior to the T'ang dynasty (A.D.
The descendants of the first made themselves masters of Gung-t'ang, Lugyalwa, Chyipa, Lhatse, Langlung and Tsakor, where they severally ruled as petty chiefs.
Several Chinese memoirs of this kind appear to have perished; and especially to be regretted is a great collection of the works of travellers to India, religious and secular, in sixty books, with forty more of maps and illustrations, published at the expense of the emperor Kao-Tsung of the T'ang dynasty, A.D.
(a) the Ta-T'ang-Si-Yu-Ki, or Memoirs on Western Countries issued by the Tang Dynasty, which was compiled under the traveller's own supervision, by order of the great emperor Tai-Tsung; and (b) a Biography of Hsiian Tsang by two of his contemporaries.