The greatness of the Hungarian family of Karolyi dates from the time of Alexander Karolyi (1668-1743), one of the generals of Francis Rakoczy II., who in 1711 negotiated the peace of Szatmar between the insurgent Hungarians and the new king, the emperor Charles VI., was made a count of the Empire in 1712, and subsequently became a field marshal in the imperial army.
The fortress of Tokaj and the counties of Bereg, Szatmar and Ugocsa were at the same time ceded to Bocskay, with reversion to Austria if he should die childless.
Besides the Hansag, the other principal marshes are the Sari-et, which covers a considerable portion of the counties of Jasz-Kun-Szolnok, Bekes and Bihar; the Escedi Lap in the county of Szatmar; the Szernye near Munkacs, and the Alibunar in the county of Torontal.
In 14 other counties, on the linguistic frontier, they are either in a small majority or a considerable minority (61.6% in Szatmar, 18.9% in Torontal).
(e) The circle on the left bank of the Theiss contains eight counties: Bekes, Bihar, Hajdu, Maramaros, Szabolcs, Szatmar, Szilagy and Ugocsa.
These are: Arad, Baja, Debreczen, Gyor, Hodmezo-Vasarhely, Kassa, Kecskemet, Kolozsvar, Komarom, Maros-Vasarhely, Nagyvarad, Pancsova, Pecs, Pozsony, Selmecz-es Belabanya, Sopron, Szabadka, Szatmar-Nemeti, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Temesvar, Ujvidek, Versecz, Zombor, the town of Fiume, and Budapest, the capital of the county.
16, 1645), the last political triumph of Hungarian Protestantism, whereby the emperor was forced to confirm once more the oft-broken articles of the peace of Vienna, 1 The counties of Szatmar, Ugocsa and Bereg and the fortress of Tokaj were formally ceded to him.
But when, on the 7th of April 1711, Joseph died without issue, leaving the crown to his brother the Archduke Charles, then fighting the battles of the Allies in Spain, a peace-congress met at Szatmar on the 27th of April, and, two days later, an understanding was arrived at on the basis of a general amnesty, full religious liberty and the recognition of the inviolability of the ancient rights and privileges of the Magyars.
Thus the peace of Szatmar assured to the Hungarian nation all that it had won by former compacts with the Habsburgs; but whereas hitherto the Transylvanian principality had been the permanent guardian of all such compacts, and the authority of the reigning house had been counterpoised by the Turk, the effect and validity of the peace of Szatmar depended entirely upon the support it might derive from the nation itself.
And Leopold I., as also the continual encroachment of Germanizing influences under 17th the Habsburgs, were unfavourable to the development of the national literature during the next literary period, dating from the Peace of Vienna (1606) to that of Szatmar (1711).
Work 1 at Cracow in 1531 to the end of the period just treated, more than 1800 publications in the native language are known.2 The period comprised between the peace of Szatmar (1711) and the year 1772 is far more barren in literary results than even that which preceded it.
Law proved distasteful, and at Cseke in Szatmar county he devoted his time to aesthetical study, poetry, criticism, and the defence of the theories of Kazinczy.
A monument erected to the memory of Kolcsey was unveiled at Szatmar-Nemeti on the 25th of September 1864.
His "aulic tendencies" made him so unpopular that his offer of mediation between the Rak6czy insurgents and the government was rejected by the Hungarian diet, and the negotiations, which led to the peace of Szatmar (see Hungary: History), were entrusted to Janos Pallfy.