In the later years of his life he turned to the study of the earlier phases of the science which he did so much to advance, and students of chemical history are greatly indebted to him for his book on Les Origines de l'alchimie (1885) and his Introduction a l'etude de la chimie des anciens et du moyen age (1889), as well as for publishing translations of various old Greek, Syriac and Arabic treatises on alchemy and chemistry (Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs, 1887-1888, and La Chimie au moyen age, 1893).
That culture was naturally Aramaic; they wrote a letter to Antigonus "in Syriac letters," and Aramaic continued to be the language of their coins and inscriptions when the tribe grew into a kingdom, and profited by the decay of the Seleucids to extend its borders northward over the more fertile country east of the Jordan.
Syriac and Armenian versions were made in the 5th century.
Wallis Budge (1896, 2 vols., with English translation); the Syriac text of pseudo-Callisthenes by Budge (Cambridge, 1889); cp. K.
He early developed a gift for languages, becoming familiar not only with Latin and Greek but also with Hebrew, Syriac, Persian, Turkish and other Eastern tongues.
Since he wrote, new authorities have been discovered or rendered accessible; works in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Armenian, Syriac, Arabic and other languages, which he was unable to consult, have been published.
The Leyden Syriac is supplemented with literal extracts from the latter, and the whole is presented as his work.
In Syriac we have a full copy in a 12th-century Leyden MS., published in J.
In Arabic we have fragments at Paris, of which Renan translated a specimen for the Spicilegium solesmense, and another version of thirty-seven chapters at Leiden, probably the work of a monk at Jerusalem, which Land translated and printed with the Syriac. The Latin MSS.
JOHN OF ASIA (or OF Ephesus), a leader of the Monophysite Syriac-speaking Church in the 6th century, and one of the earliest and most important of Syriac historians.
The same cause may account for the somewhat slovenly Syriac style.
He edited the Didascalia apostolorum syriace (1854), and other Syriac texts collected in the British Museum and in Paris.
He edited the Aramaic translation (known as the Targum) of the Prophets according to the Codex Reuchlinianus preserved at Carlsruhe, Prophetae chaldaice (1872), the Hagiographa chaldaice (1874), an Arabic translation of the Gospels, Die vier Evangelien, arabisch aus der Wiener Handschrift herausgegeben (1864), a Syriac translation of the Old Testament Apocrypha, Libri V.
Syriac is the eastern dialect of the Aramaic language which, during the early centuries of the Christian era, prevailed in Mesopotamia and the adjoining regions.
Its paucity of vowels: for where Hebrew has two full vowels - a long and a short - in gatal, and Arabic has three short vowels in qatala, Aramaic has only one short vowel, the sound `` between q and t being merely a half vowel which is not indicated in Syriac writing.
In the older Aramaic dialects this is used exactly as the noun with prefixed article is used in other languages; but in Syriac the emphatic state has lost this special function of making the noun definite, and has become simply the normal state of the noun.
The main grammatical distinction between Syriac and all the west Aramaic dialects is that in Syriac the 3rd person of the imperfect (singular and plural) of the verb begins with n, but in west Aramaic, as in the other Semitic languages, it begins with y.
When, in the 5th century A.D., owing to theological differences the Syriac-using Christians became divided into Nestorians or East Syrians and Jacobites (Monophysites) or West Syrians, certain differences of pronunciation, chiefly in the vowels, began to develop themselves.
The Syriac alphabet, which derived its letters from forms ultimately akin to those of the Old Hebrew and Phoenician alphabets, has the same twenty-two letters as the Hebrew.
1 The vowels, which are ten in number (a a e e i i o o u u), were, as usual in the Semitic languages, indicated only partially by the use of consonants as vowel-letters 2 and by means of certain diacritical points, so long as Syriac remained a living language.
Where the same root exists in Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew, its fundamental consonants are usually the same in all three languages.
(1) Where Arabic has an ordinary dental, Syriac and Hebrew have the same; but where Arabic has an aspirated dental (e.g.
Th), Syriac has an ordinary dental t, but Hebrew has a sibilant (sh).
(2) Hebrew has one more sibilant than Arabic or Syriac: thus, as corresponding to s (samekh), s (sin) sh in Hebrew, Arabic has only s (sin) sh, while Syriac has a different pair s (samekh) sh.
In vowel-sounds Syriac is clearly more primitive than Hebrew (as pointed by the Massoretes), less so than Arabic. Thus Ar.
But the second syllable of the same word shows Syriac siding with Hebrew against Arabic. Again the primitive a of Arabic is in the older (Nestorian) pronunciation of Syriac maintained, while in Jacobite Syriac and in Hebrew it passes into o: thus Ar.
Again Syriac 1 It may indeed be remarked that Syriac, which is generally more primitive in its sounds than Hebrew, shows a more advanced stage of weakening as regards the gutturals: thus in a good many forms it has substituted alef for initial he, and often shows a dislike for the presence of two gutturals in the same word, weakening one of them to alef.
2 With regard to this, Syriac has one great difference from Hebrew, viz.
The accent plays much less part in lengthening and altering the vowels in Syriac than in Hebrew, but there are well-marked cases of lengthening from this cause.
The Syriac noun has three states - the absolute (used chiefly in adjectival or participial predicates, but also with numerals and negatives, in adverbial phrases, &c.), the construct (which, as in Hebrew, must be immediately followed by a genitive), and the emphatic (see above).
There are only two genders and two numbers: the neuter gender is entirely wanting, and the dual number is not recognized in Syriac grammar, though there are plain traces of it in the language.
Syriac is not, like Arabic and Hebrew, confined to the use of the construct for the ordinary expression of the genitive or possessive relation: for it has a preposition (d) which expresses " of," " belonging to."
This is one of the many respects where Syriac has gained greater flexibility in syntax than Hebrew.
The Syriac verb is remarkable for having entirely lost the original passive forms, such as in Arabic can be formed in every conjugation and in Hebrew are represented by the Pual and Hophal.
For these Syriac has substituted middle or reflexive forms with prefixed eth and a change in the last vowel.
But the most important peculiarity of Syriac verbs is again in the sphere of syntax, and shows the same progress towards flexibility which we found in the nouns.
Whereas the Hebrew verb is devoid of real tenses, and only expresses an action as completed or as in process without indicating time past, present or future, Syriac has by the help of an auxiliary verb constructed a set of tenses.
The same progress towards flexibility in syntax is seen in the copious supply of conjunctions possessed by Syriac. No doubt the tendency towards a more flowing construction of sentences was helped by the influence of Greek, which has also supplied a large stock of words to the Syriac vocabulary.
Syriac Literature >>
The Manchus and Mongols are chiefly Buddhist, with letters derived from the ancient Syriac. The Manchus are now said to be gradually falling under the influence of Chinese civilization, and to be losing their old nomadic habits, and even their peculiar language.
It is an adaptation of the Syriac writing introduced by the early Nestorian missionaries.
This Raba., the mother of falsehood and lies, of poisoning and fornication is an anti-Christian parody of the Ruha d'Qudsha (Holy Spirit) of the Syriac Church.
Beginning with y, not as in Syriac and the eastern dialects with n or 1; the plur.
From the age of sixteen to nearly twenty his health was so unsatisfactory that he attended neither school nor college, bilt worked at Chaldee and Syriac, began to read Arabic, and mastered 'S Gravesande's Natural Philosophy, together with various textbooks of logic and metaphysics.
The Oriental point of view for the 13th century appears in Jelaleddin's history of the Ayyubite sultans of Egypt, written towards the end of the 13th century; in Maqrizi's history of Egypt, written in the middle of the 15th century; and in the compendium of the history of the human race by Abulfeda (f1332); while the omniscient Abulfaragius (whom Rey calls the Eastern St Thomas) wrote, in the latter half of the 13th century, a chronicle of universal history in Syriac, which he also issued, in an Arabic recension, as a Compendious History of the Dynasties.
The last survivals of Aramaic are to be sought in certain remote villages of Anti-Lebanon, and in the Syriac known to the clergy.
Syriac Language >>
The earliest Hellenic culture in the East was Syrian, and the Arabs made their first acquaintance with Greek chemistry, as with Greek philosophy, mathematics, medicine, &c., by the intermediary of Syriac translations.
(See Arabian Philosophy and Syriac Literature.) Examples of such translations are preserved in MSS.