ARCHIMEDES (c. 287 -212 B.C.), Greek mathematician and inventor, was born at Syracuse, in Sicily.
He was the son of Pheidias, an astronomer, and was on intimate terms with, if not related to, Hiero, king of Syracuse, and Gelo his son.
Thus he devised for Hiero engines of war which almost terrified the Romans, and which protracted the siege of Syracuse for three years.
Archimedes died at the capture of Syracuse by Marcellus, 212 B.C. In the general massacre which followed the fall of the city, Archimedes, while engaged in drawing a mathematical figure on the sand, was run through the body by a Roman soldier.
It was founded (perhaps on the site of an early Sicanian settlement) by colonists from Gela about 582 B.C., and, though the lastest city of importance founded by the Greeks in Sicily, soon acquired a position second to that of Syracuse alone, owing to its favourable situation for trade with Carthage and to the fertility of its territory.
In the struggle between Syracuse and Athens (415-413) the city remained absolutely neutral.
Of Syracuse had placed there about 470 B.C., owing to the same cause.
Syracuse Caltagirone, Noto, Piazza-Armerina.
It must be observed that the name Italians was at one time confined to the Oenotrians; indeed, according to Antiochus of Syracuse (apud Dion.
His troops had captured Messina after a bombardment which earned him the sobriquet of King Bomba; Catania and Syracuse fell soon after, hideous atrocities being everywhere committed with his sanction.
The probable origin of the story is the part traditionally taken in the foundation of Syracuse by the Iamidae of Olympia, who identified the spring Arethusa with their own river Alpheus, and the nymph with Artemis Alpheiaia, who was worshipped at Ortygia.
He fell, however, in 407 in an attempt to enter Syracuse, and, as a result of the treaty of 405 B.C., Selinus became absolutely subject to Carthage, and remained so until its destruction at the close of the first Punic War, when its inhabitants were transferred to Lilybaeum.
In front of the wall lies a deep trench, into which several passages descend, as at the nearly contemporary fort of Euryelus above Syracuse (q.v.).
These ancient indications of a Minoan connexion with Sicily have now received interesting confirmation in the numerous discoveries, principally due to the recent excavations of P. Orsi, of arms and painted vases of Late Minoan fabric in Bronze Age tombs of the provinces of Syracuse and Girgenti (Agrigentum) belonging to the late Bronze Age.
For a short time he worked for his father in the hardware business; in1852-1856he worked as a surveyor in preparing maps of Ulster, Albany and Delaware counties in New York, of Lake and Geauga counties in Ohio, and of Oakland county in Michigan, and of a projected railway line between Newburgh and Syracuse, N.Y.
See Syracuse and Timoleon; and, on both the Dionysii, articles by B.
At Cyare, a fountain near Syracuse which Pluto made to spring up when he carried off his bride, the Syracusans held an annual festival in the course of which bulls were sacrificed by being drowned in the water.
Its effect was to remove from Athens for a period of ten years any person who threatened the harmony and tranquillity of the body politic. A similar device existed at various times in Argos, Miletus, Syracuse and Megara, but in these cities it appears to have been introduced under Athenian influence.
On the whole, the history of its effect in Athens, Argos, Miletus, Megara and Syracuse (where it was called Petalismus), furnishes no sufficient defence against its admitted disadvantages.
Its form in inscriptions of Melos, Selinus, Syracuse and elsewhere in the 6th and 5th centuries suggests the influence of Aramaic forms in which the head of the letter is opened,9.
From this time Gelo paid little attention to Gela, and devoted himself to the aggrandizement of Syracuse, which attained extraordinary wealth and influence.
20-38; see also SICILY: History, and SYRACUSE; for his coins see NUMISMATICS: Sicily.
It is still to be seen at Syracuse, but it was probably transplanted thither at a later time, and reared only as a curiosity, as there is no notice of it to be found previous to 1674.
At Syracuse also there are very extensive catacombs known as " the Grottos of St John."
C. Barrecca, Le Catacombe di San Giovanni in Siracusa (Syracuse, 1906).
The arrests of Sims and of Shadrach in Boston in 1851; of "Jerry" M`Henry, in Syracuse, New York, in the same year; of Anthony Burns in 1854, in Boston; and of the two Garner families in 1856, in Cincinnati, with other cases arising under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, probably had as much to do with bringing on the Civil War as did the controversy over slavery in the Territories.
Of Syracuse, on an outlet of Owasco Lake.
AGATHOCLES (361-289 B.C.), tyrant of Syracuse, was born at Thermae Himeraeae (mod.
The son of a potter who had removed to Syracuse, he learned his father's trade, but afterwards entered the army.
He was twice banished for attempting to overthrow the oligarchical party in Syracuse; in 317 he returned with an army of mercenaries under a solemn oath to observe the democratic constitution which was then set up. Having banished or murdered some Io,000 citizens, and thus made himself master of Syracuse, he created a strong army and fleet and subdued the greater part of Sicily.
In 310 Agathocles, defeated and besieged in Syracuse, took the desperate resolve of breaking through the blockade and attacking the enemy in Africa.
Gelon, who seized the tyranny on his death, became master of Syracuse in 485 B.C., and transferred his capital thither with half the inhabitants of Gela, leaving his brother Hiero to rule over the rest.
Syracuse was the chief Greek city of ancient Sicily, and one of the earliest Greek settlements in the island.
4, p. 269) Chersicrates and Archias of Corinth, both Heraclidae, left their native city together with a band of colonists, the former stopping with half the force at Corcyra, where he expelled the Liburnians and occupied the island, while Archias proceeded to Syracuse.'
431) might suggest, the primitive kingship was retained or renewed at Syracuse, as it certainly was in some other Greek colonies.
It is far more certain that Syracuse went through the usual revolutions of a Greek city.
But this version implies that Megara was founded before Syracuse, which is contrary to all other authorities.
The whole question of the various tales relating to the foundation of Syracuse is discussed by E.
In its external development Syracuse differed somewhat from other Sicilian cities.
The three together secured for Syracuse a continuous dominion to the south-east 2 The origin of the name is quite uncertain.
Of Syracuse, must have been among its earliest settlements (Freeman ii.
4 The site of Casmenae is uncertain; it was to the south-west of Syracuse, and not improbably at Spaccaforno (Freeman ii.
Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela (498-491), threatened the independence of Syracuse as well as of other cities, and it was saved only by the joint intervention of Corinth and Corcyra and by the cession of the vacant territory of Camarina.
In 485 the Gamori, who had been expelled by the Demos and the Sicel serfs, and had taken refuge at Casmenae, craved help of Gelo, the successor of Hippocrates, who took possession of Syracuse without opposition, and made it the seat of his power.
He gave citizenship both to mercenaries and to settlers from Greece, and added to the population the inhabitants of other cities conquered by him, so that Syracuse became a city of mixed population, in which the new citizens had the advantage.
Syracuse thus became a democratic commonwealth.
The part of Syracuse in general Sicilian affairs has been traced in the article Sicily; but one striking scene is wholly local, when the defeated Ducetius took refuge in the hostile city (451), and the common voice of the people bade "spare the suppliant."
We hear of a naval expedition to the Etruscan coast and Corsica about 453 B.C. and of the great military and naval preparations of Syracuse in 439 (Diod.
Yet all that we read of Syracusan military and naval action during the former part of the Athenian siege shows how Syracuse had lagged behind the cities of old Greece, constantly practised as they were in warfare both by land and sea.
The Athenian siege (415-13) is of the deepest importance for the topography of Syracuse, and it throws some light on the internal politics.
Lamachus was for immediate action, and there can hardly be a doubt that Syracuse must have fallen before a sudden attack by so formidable an armament in the summer of 415.
The second act of the drama may be said to open with the irretrievable blunder of Nicias in letting the Spartan Gylippus first land in Sicily, and then march at the head of a small army, partly levied on the spot, across the island, and enter Syracuse by way of Epipolae, past Euryelus.
Her great deliverance and victory naturally stirred up the energies of Syracuse at home and abroad.
He next, by another trick, procured from a military assembly at Leontini a vote of a bodyguard; he hired mercenaries and in 406-405 came back to Syracuse as tyrant of the city (Diod.
His enemies in the army, chiefly the horsemen, reached Syracuse before him, plundered his house, and horribly maltreated his wife.
In 397 Syracuse had to stand a siege from the Carthaginians under Himilco, who took up his quarters at the Olympieum, but his troops in the marshes below suffered from pestilence, and a masterly combined attack by land and sea by Dionysius ended in his utter defeat.
This revolution and the peace with the Carthaginians confirmed Dionysius in the possession of Syracuse, but of no great territory beyond, as Leontini was again a separate city.
It left Syracuse the one great Hellenic city of Sicily, which, however enslaved at home, was at least independent of the barbarian.
In fact the free Greek cities and communities, in both Sicily and southern Italy, were sacrificed to Syracuse; there the greatness and glory of the Greek world in the West were concentrated.
Syracuse thus absorbed three of the chief Greek cities of Sicily.