Ammonia can be synthesized by submitting a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to the action of the silent electric discharge, the combination, however, being very imperfect.
Hitherto we have generally restricted ourselves to syntheses which result in the production of a true benzene ring; but there are many reactions by which reduced benzene rings are synthesized, and from the compounds so obtained true benzenoid compounds may be prepared.
87, p. 325) synthesized it by acting with benzoyl chloride on zinc glycocollide.
In the preceding instances the carboxyl group has been synthesized or introduced into a molecule; we have now to consider syntheses from substances already containing carboxyl groups.
It may be synthesized 1py passing the vapour of phenyl butylene bromide over heated soda lime (B.
The acid has been synthesized, as has also the inactive form of methylethylacetic acid; this modification is split into its optical antipodes by crystallization of its brucine salt.
Can also be synthesized by heating catechol with phthalic anhydride and sulphuric acid at 150 C. ' 'C 6 H4>Cg>O+C 6 H4(OH)2[1.2] = H 2 0 -}-C6H4C6H2(OH)2.
Lagodzinski (Berichte, 1895, 28, p. 1427) has synthesized alizarin by condensing hemipinic acid [(CH30)2C6H2(COOH)2] with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride.
It has been suggested that urea is formed by polymerization of ammonium carbonate, and formic aldehyde is synthesized from CO 2 and 011 2.
It was the first alkaloid to be synthesized, a result due to A.
Water and carbonic acid are synthesized, under the action of sunlight, to form sugar, starch or some other carboh y drate and this is then combined with simple nitrogenous salts to form proteid.
Nitrogen is always being synthesized from the atmosphere (by plants, and by electrical discharges which combine nitrogen and oxygen), and this combined nitrogen is either utilized by land organisms or is washed down into the sea in the water of the rivers.
It appears to be synthesized in the plant tissues from carbon dioxide and water, formaldehyde being an intermediate product; or it may be a hydrolytic product of a glucoside or of a polysaccharose, such as cane sugar, starch, cellulose, &c. In the plant it is freely converted into more complex sugars, poly-saccharoses and also proteids.
Piperine, conine, atropine, belladonine, cocaine, hyoscyamine and nicotine have been already synthesized; the constitution of several others requires confirmation, while there remain many important alkaloids - quinine, morphine, strychnine, &c. - whose constitution remains unknown.
Freund, and P. Fritsch) and cotarnine to be III.; the latter has been synthesized by A.
Pechmann, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1624), thus corresponding to the formulae The homologues of pyridine may be synthesized in various ways.
Apophyllenic acid, C8H7N04 H20, the methyl betaine of cinchomeronic acid, was synthesized by W.
The acid may also be synthesized by the decomposition of alanine (a-aminopropionic acid) by nitrous acid (K.
Brown and Morris in 1892 advanced strong reasons for thinking that cane-sugar, Ci2H22O11, is the first carbohydrate synthesized, and that the hexoses found in the plant result from the decomposition of this.
Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.
Held synthesized the acid from ethyl chlor-acetoacetate (from chlorine and acetoacetic ester) by heating with potassium cyanide and saponifying the resulting nitrile.
Xanthene, C13H100, may be synthesized by condensing phenol with ortho-cresol in the presence of aluminium chloride.
Carbonic acid is taken from the water and synthesized (by the mediation of light energy) into carbohydrate.
By further decomposition peptones yield peptides, a certain number of which have been synthesized by Emil Fischer and his collaborators.
1837) he synthesized glycerin, starting from propylene.
Also Marchlewski (in 1899) synthesized cane sugar from potassium fructosate and acetochloroglucose; and after Fischer discovered that acetochlorohexoses readily resulted from the interaction of the hexose penta-acetates and liquid hydrogen chloride, several others have been obtained.
Cavendish determined its constitution and showed that it could be synthesized by passing a stream of electric sparks through moist air.
It was synthesized by A.
Methyl conine, C 9 H 19 N or C8H14 N(CH3), is synthesized from conine and an aqueous solution of potassium methyl sulphate at
The a-acid was synthesized by C. N.
Tertiary alcohols may be synthesized by a method devised by A.
Ital., 1887, 17, p. 126; 1888, 18, p. 457) synthesized the asparagines from the monomethyl ester of inactive aspartic acid by heating it with alcoholic ammonia.
It may be synthesized from toluene; more interesting is its production when acetone dicarboxylic ester is condensed with the aid of sodium.
Berthelot, who, in conjunction with Bardy, afterwards synthesized it from a-ethyl naphthalene (Ann.
It was synthesized by W.
It has been synthesized by E.