Stas, in his syntheses of silver iodide, weighed the silver and the iodine separately, and after converting them into the compound he weighed this also.
This formula, notwithstanding many attempts at both disproving and modifying it, has well stood the test of time; the subject has been the basis of constant discussion, many variations have been proposed, but the original conception of Kekule remains quite as convenient as any of the newer forms, especially when considering the syntheses and decompositions of the benzene complex.
We now proceed to consider the properties, syntheses, decompositions and constitution of the benzene complex.
Syntheses of the Benzene Ring.-The characteristic distinctions NH NH, r.-NH, [[Cooh Cooh, _ + Nh2 Nh, H., Cooh]] x x x Tri.
Of other syntheses of true benzene derivatives, mention may be made of the formation of orcinol or [3 s]-dioxytoluene from dehydracetic acid; and the formation of esters of oxytoluic acid (5-methyl3-oxy-benzoic acid), C6 H3 CH3.
Hitherto we have generally restricted ourselves to syntheses which result in the production of a true benzene ring; but there are many reactions by which reduced benzene rings are synthesized, and from the compounds so obtained true benzenoid compounds may be prepared.
For other syntheses of hexamethylene derivatives, see Polymethylenes.
Marckwald (Ann., 93, 74, 331; 1894, 79, 14) has supported this formula from considerations based on the syntheses of the quinoline ring.
Here we shall only discuss the structure of these compounds in the light of the modern benzene theories; reference should be made to the articles Naphthalene, Anthracene and Phenanthrene for syntheses, decompositions, &c.
Formula (4) is symmetrical and based on Kekule's formula: it is in full accord with the syntheses and decompositions of the naphthalene nucleus and the number of isomers found.
The former, based on Kekule's symbol for benzene, explains the decompositions and syntheses of the ring, but the character of naphthalene is not in keeping with the presence of five double linkages, although it is more readily acted upon than benzene is.
For general purposes, however, the symbol (2), in which the lateral rings are benzenoid and the medial ring fatty, represents quite adequately the syntheses, decompositions, and behaviour of anthracene.
The centric hypothesis has been applied to these rings by Bamberger and others; but as in the previous rings considered, the ordinary (3) (4) (5) representation with double and single linkages generally represents the syntheses, decompositions, &c.; exceptions, however, are known where it is necessary to assume an oscillation of the double linkage.
The constitution of the benzene ring, the isomerism of its derivatives, and their syntheses from aliphatic or openchain compounds, are treated in the article Chemistry.
One of the earliest red-hot tube syntheses of importance was the formation of naphthalene from a mixture of alcohol and ether vapours.
The simplest syntheses are undoubtedly those in which a carboxyl group is obtained directly from the oxides of carbon, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.
Carbon monoxide takes part in the syntheses of sodium formate from sodium hydrate, or soda lime (at 200 0 -2 20 0), and of sodium acetate and propionate from sodium methylate and sodium ethylate at 160 0 -200°.
Kant does not, in this place, raise the question as to the reason for assuming that the arbitrary syntheses of mathematical construction have any reference to reality.
During recent years (1900 onwards) many brilliant syntheses have been effected by the aid of magnesium-alkyl-haloids.
As a synthetical agent in organic chemistry, aluminium chloride has rendered possible more reactions than any other substance; here we can only mention the classic syntheses of benzene homologues.
In the preceding instances the carboxyl group has been synthesized or introduced into a molecule; we have now to consider syntheses from substances already containing carboxyl groups.
Of foremost importance are the reactions termed the malonic acid and the aceto-acetic ester syntheses; these are discussed under their own headings.