A hundred years' study of the synoptic problem, i.e.
His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, De Caelo, are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine.
Ritschl's Entstehung der alt-hatholischen Kirche, and edition, 1857, was an especially telling reply.) The synoptic gospels are now treated with considerable respect.
- The Psalms of Solomon and the synoptic Gospels (70 B.C. - A.D.
His sources for the teachings of Jesus are the "Memoirs of the Apostles," by which are probably to be understood the Synoptic Gospels (without the Gospel according to St John), which, according to his account, were read along with the prophetic writings at the public services.
Basing their views on the synoptic Gospels, and tracing descent from the obscure sect of the Alogi, the Adoptianists under Theodotus of Byzantium tried to found a school at Rome c. 185, asserting that Jesus was a man, filled with the Holy Spirit's inspiration from his baptism, and so attaining such a perfection of holiness that he was adopted by God and exalted to divine dignity.
Le Discours sur la Montagne is a fragment of a coming enlarged commentary on the synoptic Gospels.
Here he continued his important reviews, notably in the Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses, and published Morceaux d'exegese (1906), six further sections of his synoptic commentary.
The Inquisition, by its decree Lamentabili sane (2nd of July 1907), condemned sixty-five propositions concerning the Church's magisterium; biblical inspiration and interpretation; the synoptic and fourth Gospels; revelation and dogma; Christ's divinity, human knowledge and resurrection; and the historical origin and growth of the Sacraments, the Church and the Creed.
The gospel is synoptic in character and is closely related to Matthew, though in the Resurrection accounts it has affinities with Luke.
Among his other papers may be mentioned those dealing with the formation of fairy rings (1807), a synoptic scale of chemical equivalents (1814), sounds inaudible to ordinary ears (1820), the physiology of vision (1824), the apparent direction of the eyes in a portrait (1824) and the comparison of the light of the sun with that of the moon and fixed stars (1829).
Weiss, Die Quellen des Lukas-evangeliums (1907); also books on the Four Gospels, or the Synoptic Gospels, mentioned at end of article Gospel.
In his later years he published an address read before the members of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution (1868), one on Design in Nature, for the Christian Evidence Society, which reached a fifth edition, various charges and pastoral addresses, and he was one of the projectors of The Speaker's Commentary, for which he wrote the "Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels."
Kern (1880), the various texts shown in synoptic tables; A.
The central theme of his preaching was, according to the Synoptic Gospels, the nearness of the coming of the Messianic kingdom, and the consequent urgency for preparation by repentance.
" I am the life," not " I teach the life," " I am the truth," not merely " I teach the truth," are not additions of Johannine theology but the central aspect of the presentation of Christ as the good physician, healer of souls and bodies, which the most rigid scrutiny of the Synoptic Gospels leaves as the residuum of accepted fact about Jesus of Nazareth.
The present article will first describe its general structure and more obvious contents; compare it with the Synoptic Gospels; and draw out its leading characteristics and final object.
This chapter's first two stages contain an important early historical document of Synoptic type: Jesus' apparition to seven disciples by the Lake of Galilee and the miraculous draught of fishes; and Peter's threefold confession and Jesus' threefold commission to him.
The story of the risen Christ (xx.) shows dependence on and contrast to the Synoptic accounts.
Only some sixteen Synoptic sayings reappear here; but we are given some great new sayings full of the Synoptic spirit.
" Truth," " the truth," " to know," have here arominence P and significance far beyond their Synoptic or even their Pauline use.
The term, already Synoptic, takes over here most of the connotations of the " Kingdom of God," the standing Synoptic expression, which appears here only in iii.
The materials for the allegory will have been certain Old Testament narratives, but especially the Synoptic accounts of Jesus' raisings of Jairus's daughter and of the widow's son (Mark v.; (Luke vii.).
The book has an outer protective shell of acutely polemical and exclusive moods and insistences, whilst certain splendid Synoptic breadths and reconciliations are nowhere reached; but this is primarily because it is fighting, more consciously than they, for that inalienable ideal of all deepest religion, unity, even external and corporate, amongst all believers.
Justin Martyr (163-167) certainly uses the Gospel; but his conception of Jesus' life is so strictly Synoptic that he can hardly have accepted it as from an apostolic eyewitness.
The reasons which converge upon the conclusion just expressed as to the origin and nature of the fundamental documents worked up in our present Synoptic Gospels are as follows: (i.) The literary analysis of the Synoptic Gospels brings out a number of sections common to Matthew and Luke which probably at one time existed as an independent document.
Special mention should be made of Wellhausen on the Synoptic Gospels (1903-1905), and Harnack, Beitrage z.
For the Synoptic Gospels.
In The Common Tradition of the Synoptic Gospels by E.
(a) Evidence of the Synoptic Tradition and of St Mark's Gospel (ii.
- The order of events in the primitive synoptic tradition appears to be faithfully reproduced in St Mark; and if this order is chronological, Christ's ministry lasted at least two years, since the plucking of the ears of corn (April - June) marks a first spring; the feeding of the five thousand when the grass was fresh green (xXcwpos: about March), a second; and the Passover of the Crucifixion a third: and these three points are so far removed from one another in the narrative that the conclusion would hold, even if the general arrangement in St Mark were only roughly, and not minutely, chronological.
On the other hand, it may be true that an impression of a briefer period of ministry naturally results, and in early generations did actually result, from the synoptic account considered as a whole.
With this exception, however, all ancient writers, whether they enumerated two or three or four Passovers in the Gospel history, believed that the enumeration was exhaustive; and their belief appears correctly to represent the mind of the author of the Fourth Gospel, seeing that his various notes of time were probably in intentional contrast to the looser synoptic accounts.
The synoptic Gospels appear to place the Crucifixion on the 15th, since they speak of the Last Supper as a Passover; St John's Gospel, on the other hand (xiii.
Some such document, we know, must lie at the base of our Synoptic Gospels, and it is quite possible that it may have been known to and used by Papias.
But in this last and other respects it contrasts with the other synoptic and with the Pauline accounts.
And the question as to the true theory of these relations is known as the Synoptic Problem.
This oral theory was for a long time the favourite one in England; it was never widely held in Germany, and in recent years the majority of English students of the Synoptic Problem have come to feel that it does not satisfactorily explain the phenomena.
This source has supplied the Synoptic Outline, and in the main also the narratives common to all three.
It is introduced into the Synoptic Outline very differently in those two Gospels, which clearly suggests that it existed in a separate form, and was independently combined by the first and third evangelists with their other document.
Books on the Synoptic Gospels, especially the Synoptic Problem: H.
Jolley, The Synoptic Problem (1893); J.
Rushbrooke, Synopticon, An Exposition of the Common Matter of the Synoptic Gospels (1880); A.
(the Synoptic Gospels, Lond., 1897).
The tale of royal treachery in his capture is popular; the best authorities for it seem to be the synoptic versions of a ballad and of the fabulous chronicler, Pitscottie.
The Fourth Gospel thus offers us a most important supplement to the limited sketch of our Lord's life which we find in the Synoptic Gospels.
Among his many theological works may be mentioned An Exposition of the Epistles to the Seven Churches of Asia (1877), The Spirits in Prison (1884), "The Book of Proverbs" (which he annotated in the Speaker's Commentary), the "Synoptic Gospels, Acts, and II.
In the lists of the Apostles given in the Synoptic Gospels and in Acts, Matthew ranks third or fourth in the second group of four - a fair index of his relative importance in the apostolic age.
Montefiore, Synoptic Gospels (1909); H.
C. Allen (in the series of International Critical Commentaries, 1907); also books on the Four Gospels or the Synoptic Gospels cited at the end of GOSPEL.
This task of co-ordination, in the broadest sense, is undertaken by philosophy; for the philosopher is essentially what Plato, in a happy moment, styled him, ovvonrrucen, the man who takes a "synoptic" or comprehensive view of the universe as a whole.
In the synoptic gospels Bartholomew is never mentioned except in the lists of the apostles, where his name always appears after Philip's.
Books on Christian Ethics have also found room for a quasi Synoptic doctrine of the Kingdom of God, which Paulinized dogmatic systems were slow to admit.
Bruce on the Synoptic Gospels, and Swete on Mark.
II., The Synoptic Gospels (1908).
There is no traceable literary contact with the synoptic gospels.