On the 26th of January the grand-duke issued a circular letter to the Tuscan bishops suggesting certain reforms, especially in the matter of the restoration of the authority of diocesan synods, the purging of the missals and breviaries of legends, the assertion of episcopal as against papal authority, the curtailing of the privileges of the monastic orders, and the better education of the clergy.
In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish Synods at Leipzig and Augsburg.
LAMBETH CONFERENCES, the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury.
Protestants were granted full civil rights and protection, and were permitted to hold their ecclesiastical assemblies - consistories, colloquies and synods, 1 Lindsay, Hist.
Synods were held in 1718, 1723, 1726 and 1727; and in a remote spot in Bas Languedoc in 1 744 a national synod assembled - the first since 1660 - which consisted of representatives from every province formerly Protestant.
In 1581 the Middelburg Synod divided the Church, created provincial synods and presbyteries, but could not shake off the civil power in connexion with the choice of church officers.
Cartwright and Edmund Snape were ministers there; and from 1576 to 1625 a completely appointed Presbyterian Church existed, under the rule of synods, and authorized by the governor.
Synods Synod of also were held in the north.
In 1864 the two associations or synods of North and South Wales were united in a general assembly.
And the new states west of the Alleghany Mountains, which grew into presbyteries and synods having peculiar features midway between Presbyterianism and Congregationalism.
The greater part of the ministers decided to remain separate, and accordingly organized three independent synods - New York, Scioto and the Carolinas.
In 1858 the associate synods of the north and west united with the Associate Synod as the United Presbyterian Church.
J., founded in 1812 by the General Assembly; the Auburn Theological Seminary at Auburn, N.Y., founded in 1819 by the synod of Geneva, and afterwards associated with the New School; a school at Hampden Sidney, Virginia, founded by the synod of Virginia in 1824, named Union Theological Seminary in Virginia after 1826, supported after 1828 by the synods of Virginia and North Carolina, and in 1898 removed to Richmond, Va.; the Western Theological Seminary, founded at Allegheny (Pittsburg), Pa., in 1827 by the General Assembly; the Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Columbia, South Carolina, founded in 1828 by the synod of South Carolina; Lane Theological Seminary, founded independently in 1829 by the New School at Cincinnati, Ohio; and Union Theological Seminary, founded in 1836 by independent action of New School men, in New York City.
1858, 6 synods, 21 presbyteries and about 15,000 communicants withdrew and organized the United Synod.
- The Southern presbyteries of the Old School Assembly withdrew in 1861, and delegates from ten southern synods (47 presbyteries) met in Augusta, Georgia, in December, and organized as the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America, which included 700 ministers, 1000 churches and 75,000 communicants.
- 2,3o~ are grouped into 21 provincial synods Oats.
Its consistories are grouped into two special synods, one at Paris and one at Montbliard (for the department of Doubs and Haute-Sane and the territory of Belfort, where the churches of this denomination are principally situated).
As neighbouring dioceses coalesced into " provinces " and provinces into larger districts (corresponding to the civil " dioceses " of the later Roman Empire), the provincial synods of bishops and the synods of the larger districts acquired a criminal jurisdiction, still purely spiritual, of their own.
The first trace of system is in the limited right of appeal given by the first oecumenical council of Nicaea and its provision that episcopal sentences or those of provincial synods on appeal were to be recognized throughout the world.
That this may be conveniently inquired into, synods are to be held, three in every year, in each province, and questions of this kind examined.
Any bishop, priest or deacon " importuning " the emperor, instead of exerting his right of appeal to synods, is to lose all right of appeal and never to be restored or pardoned.
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
Consistories and synods have till near the end of the 18th century.
Bishops were often deposed by administrative order of the emperor; synods being expected afterwards to confirm, or rather accept, such order.
The cause of Ignatius and Photius was dealt with in the 9th century by various synods; those in the East agreeing with the emperor's view for the time being, while those in the West acted with the pope.
In provincial matters each province is independent, holds its own synods, makes its own laws, and elects its own governing board; but the General Synod meets, on the average, every ten years at Herrnhut, and its regulations are binding in all the provinces.
He set himself in opposition to Novatian, a presbyter of Rome, who advocated their permanent exclusion from the church; and it was his influence which guided the tolerant measures of the Carthaginian synods on the subject.
The country was divided into five districts with five synods; and Josephus asserts that the people welcomed the change from the monarchy.
At provincial synods archbishops wear the pretiosa, bishops the auriphrygiata, and mitred abbots the simplex.
(contains also notices of later synods at Arles); W.
In the East, in the 5th century, the archdeacons were already charged with the proof of the qualifications of candidates for ordination; they attended the bishops at ecclesiastical synods, and sometimes acted as their representatives; they shared in the administration of sees during a vacancy.
In the following year several African synods, held under the influence of Maximus, declared for orthodoxy.
On this point the provincial synods of Illiberis (Elvira) in 305 and of Ancyra in 315 subsequently came to conflicting decisions, the council of Elvira forbidding the reception of offenders into communion during life, and the council of Ancyra fixing a limit to the penalty in the same cases.
Hooker expressly denies the power of synods to excommunicate: "that there should be Synods, which have potestatem juridicam is nowhere proved in Scripture because it is not a truth" (Survey, P t.
He admonished the pope, appointed the bishops, watched over the morals and work of the clergy, and took an active part in the deliberations of church synods; he founded bishoprics and monasteries, was lavish in his gifts to ecclesiastical foundations, and chose bishops and abbots for administrative work.
The Eastern Church has no general doctrinal tests beyond the Nicene Creed, but from time to time synods have approved exposi (without the words And the Son "), and the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church.
In addition to his diocesan synods, he presided in 1873 over the fourth provincial synod of Westminster, which legislated on "acatholic" universities, church music, mixed marriages, and the order of a priest's household, having previously taken part, as theologian, in the provincial synods of 1853 and 1859, with a hand in the preparation of their decrees.
According to the medieval canon law, based on the decretals, and codified in the 13th century in the Corpus juris canonici, by which the earlier powers of metropolitans had been greatly curtailed, the powers of the archbishop consisted in the right (i) to confirm and consecrate suffragan bishops; (2) to summon and preside over provincial synods; (3) to superintend the suffragans and visit their dioceses, as well as to censure and punish bishops in the interests of discipline, the right of deprivation, however, being reserved to the pope; (4) to act as a court of appeal from the diocesan courts; (5) to exercise the jus devolutionis, i.e.
The summoning of provincial synods, which was made obligatory every three years by the council, was long neglected, but is now more common wherever the political conditions, e.g.
The Frankish synods emphasize the crime of seizing church property of every kind, including the vast estates so envied by the lay nobility.
With the definite triumph of the church, the profanation of its sanctuaries became less frequent, and once robbery or seizure of ecclesiastical possessions or violation of its privileges tended to absorb the attention of synods and popes.
(Guibert of Ravenna) in Rome; but a series of well-attended synods at Rome, Amalfi, Benevento and Troia, supported him in.