On the 26th of January the grand-duke issued a circular letter to the Tuscan bishops suggesting certain reforms, especially in the matter of the restoration of the authority of diocesan synods, the purging of the missals and breviaries of legends, the assertion of episcopal as against papal authority, the curtailing of the privileges of the monastic orders, and the better education of the clergy.
But as late as the 9th and 10th centuries the alba is still an everyday as well as a liturgical garment, and we find bishops and synods forbidding priests to sing mass in the alba worn by them in ordinary life (see Braun, p. 62).
In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish Synods at Leipzig and Augsburg.
LAMBETH CONFERENCES, the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury.
Synods were held in 1718, 1723, 1726 and 1727; and in a remote spot in Bas Languedoc in 1 744 a national synod assembled - the first since 1660 - which consisted of representatives from every province formerly Protestant.
In 1581 the Middelburg Synod divided the Church, created provincial synods and presbyteries, but could not shake off the civil power in connexion with the choice of church officers.
Cartwright and Edmund Snape were ministers there; and from 1576 to 1625 a completely appointed Presbyterian Church existed, under the rule of synods, and authorized by the governor.
Synods Synod of also were held in the north.
In 1864 the two associations or synods of North and South Wales were united in a general assembly.
And the new states west of the Alleghany Mountains, which grew into presbyteries and synods having peculiar features midway between Presbyterianism and Congregationalism.
The greater part of the ministers decided to remain separate, and accordingly organized three independent synods - New York, Scioto and the Carolinas.
In 1858 the associate synods of the north and west united with the Associate Synod as the United Presbyterian Church.
J., founded in 1812 by the General Assembly; the Auburn Theological Seminary at Auburn, N.Y., founded in 1819 by the synod of Geneva, and afterwards associated with the New School; a school at Hampden Sidney, Virginia, founded by the synod of Virginia in 1824, named Union Theological Seminary in Virginia after 1826, supported after 1828 by the synods of Virginia and North Carolina, and in 1898 removed to Richmond, Va.; the Western Theological Seminary, founded at Allegheny (Pittsburg), Pa., in 1827 by the General Assembly; the Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Columbia, South Carolina, founded in 1828 by the synod of South Carolina; Lane Theological Seminary, founded independently in 1829 by the New School at Cincinnati, Ohio; and Union Theological Seminary, founded in 1836 by independent action of New School men, in New York City.
In 1837 the Old Side obtained the majority in the General Assembly for the second time only in seven years; they seized their opportunity and abrogated the "Plan of Union of 1801 with the Connecticut Congregationalists," cut off the synod of Western Reserve and then the synods of Utica, Geneva and Genesee, without a trial, and dissolved the third presbytery of Philadelphia without providing for the standing of its ministers.
1858, 6 synods, 21 presbyteries and about 15,000 communicants withdrew and organized the United Synod.
- The Southern presbyteries of the Old School Assembly withdrew in 1861, and delegates from ten southern synods (47 presbyteries) met in Augusta, Georgia, in December, and organized as the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America, which included 700 ministers, 1000 churches and 75,000 communicants.
- 2,3o~ are grouped into 21 provincial synods Oats.
Its consistories are grouped into two special synods, one at Paris and one at Montbliard (for the department of Doubs and Haute-Sane and the territory of Belfort, where the churches of this denomination are principally situated).
As neighbouring dioceses coalesced into " provinces " and provinces into larger districts (corresponding to the civil " dioceses " of the later Roman Empire), the provincial synods of bishops and the synods of the larger districts acquired a criminal jurisdiction, still purely spiritual, of their own.
The first trace of system is in the limited right of appeal given by the first oecumenical council of Nicaea and its provision that episcopal sentences or those of provincial synods on appeal were to be recognized throughout the world.
That this may be conveniently inquired into, synods are to be held, three in every year, in each province, and questions of this kind examined.
It will be noticed that as yet no provision is made for appeals by bishops from provincial synods sitting in first instance.
On the other hand, the Arian reaction at court worked its objects (see Pusey, Councils of the Church) by using the criminal spiritual jurisdiction of synods against the Catholics - often packing the synods for the purpose.
Any bishop, priest or deacon " importuning " the emperor, instead of exerting his right of appeal to synods, is to lose all right of appeal and never to be restored or pardoned.
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
Consistories and synods have till near the end of the 18th century.
Bishops were often deposed by administrative order of the emperor; synods being expected afterwards to confirm, or rather accept, such order.
The cause of Ignatius and Photius was dealt with in the 9th century by various synods; those in the East agreeing with the emperor's view for the time being, while those in the West acted with the pope.
The most important enactments of the council of Chalcedon were the following: (1) the approval of the canons of the first three ecumenical councils and of the synods of Ancyra, NeoCaesarea, Changra, Antioch and Laodicea; (2) forbidding trade, secular pursuits and war to the clergy, bishops not even being allowed to administer the property of their dioceses; (3) forbidding monks and nuns to marry or to return to the world; likewise forbidding the establishment of a monastery in any diocese without the consent of the bishop, or the disestablishment of a monastery once consecrated; (4) punishing with deposition an ordination or clerical appointment made for money; forbidding "absolute ordination" (i.e.
In provincial matters each province is independent, holds its own synods, makes its own laws, and elects its own governing board; but the General Synod meets, on the average, every ten years at Herrnhut, and its regulations are binding in all the provinces.
He set himself in opposition to Novatian, a presbyter of Rome, who advocated their permanent exclusion from the church; and it was his influence which guided the tolerant measures of the Carthaginian synods on the subject.
The country was divided into five districts with five synods; and Josephus asserts that the people welcomed the change from the monarchy.
At provincial synods archbishops wear the pretiosa, bishops the auriphrygiata, and mitred abbots the simplex.
A number of ecclesiastical synods have been held at Arles, as in 314 (see below), 354, 45 2 and 475.
(contains also notices of later synods at Arles); W.
In the East, in the 5th century, the archdeacons were already charged with the proof of the qualifications of candidates for ordination; they attended the bishops at ecclesiastical synods, and sometimes acted as their representatives; they shared in the administration of sees during a vacancy.
He obtained the king's permission to deal with the affairs of the Church in synods which met apart from the Great Council, and were exclusively composed of ecclesiastics.
Though the precise locality is occasionally uncertain, the majority of the medieval synods assembled in the chapter-house of old St Paul's, or the former chapel of St Catherine within the precincts of Westminster Abbey or at Lambeth.
Before the reign of Edward I., when convocation assumed substantially its present form (see Convocation), there were convened in London various diocesan, provincial, national and legatine synods; during the past six centuries, however, the chief ecclesiastical assemblies held there have been convocations of the province of Canterbury.
The 14th-century synods at St Paul's concerned themselves largely with the financial and moral status of the clergy, and made many quaint regulations regarding their dress and behaviour (1328, 1342, 1343; cf.
In 1852 there was held the first of a series of synods of the newly organized Roman Catholic archdiocese of Westminster.
For the "Pan-Anglican Synods" see Lambeth Conferences.
- For acts of synods prior to the Reformation see Spelman, Hardouin, W.
This is why, besides the disciplinary measures which regulated the elections, the celebration of divine service, the periodical holding of diocesan synods and provincial councils, are found also decrees aimed at some of the "rights" by which the popes had extended their power, and helped out their finances at the expense of the local churches.
Gerbert proceeds to argue that the church councils admitted the right of metropolitan synods to depose unworthy bishops, but contends that, even if an appeal to Rome were necessary, that appeal had been made a year before without effect.
A " Scouts " Church was formed at the end of the war of1899-1902by burghers who had previously acted as " National Scouts " and were ostracized by the synods of their former Churches.
In 1559 it was the headquarters of the Lords of the Congregation, and in 1607 the scene of the meetings of the synod of Fife known as the Three Synods of Dysart.
LATERAN COUNCILS, the ecclesiastical councils or synods held at Rome in the Lateran basilica which was dedicated to Christ under the title of Salvator, and further called the basilica of Constantine or the church of John the Baptist.
Among these numerous synods the most prominent are those which the tradition of the Roman Catholic church has classed as ecumenical councils.