SYNOD OF PISTOIA, a diocesan synod held in 1786 under the presidency of Scipione de' Ricci (1741-1810), bishop of Pistoia, and the patronage of Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, with a view to preparing the ground for a national council and a reform of the Tuscan Church.
In spite of the hostile attitude of the great majority of the bishops, Bishop de' Ricci issued on the 31st of July a summons to a diocesan synod, which was solemnly opened on the 18th of September.
These decrees were issued together with a pastoral letter of Bishop de' Ricci, and were warmly approved by the grand-duke, at whose instance a national synod of the Tuscan bishops met at Florence on the 23rd of April 1787.
See also De Potter, Vie de Scipion de' Ricci (3 vols., Brussels, 1825), based on a MS. life and a MS. account of the synod placed on the Index in 1823.
The acts of the synod of Pistoia were published in Italian and Latin at Pavia in 1788.
On the 21st of August 1715 he summoned all the preachers in the Cevennes and Lower Languedoc to a conference or synod near the village of Monoblet.
In 1865 the synod of that province, in an urgent letter to the archbishop of Canterbury (Dr Longley), represented the unsettlement of members of the Canadian Church caused by recent legal decisions of the Privy Council, and their alarm lest the revived action of Convocation "should leave us governed by canons different from those in force in England and Ireland, and thus cause us to drift into the status of an independent branch of the Catholic Church."
Archbishop Longley said in his opening address, however, that they had no desire to assume "the functions of a general synod of all the churches:in full communion with the Church of England," but merely to "discuss matters of practical interest, and pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action."
The synod is a provincial council which consists of the ministers and representative elders from all the congregations within a specified number of presbyteries, in the same way as the presbytery is representative of a specified number of congregations.
The synod at its first meeting chooses a minister as its moderator whose duties, though somewhat more restricted, are similar to those of presbyterial moderators.
The synod hears appeals and references from presbyteries; and by its discussions and decisions business of various kinds, if not settled, is ripened for consideration and final settlement by the general assembly, the supreme court of the Church.
They would discharge their pastoral duties as individuals, but when a solemn ecclesiastical act, like ordination, was performed, it would be done, as in the case of Timothy, by" the laying on of the hands of the presbytery "; 14 and when an authoritative decision had to be reached, as in regard to circumcision, a synod or court was called together for the purpose.
Result of a conference, a synod was convened to meet Synod.
It was the first general synod of the French Protestant Church, and consisted of representatives from, some say sixty-six, others, twelve churches.
Next in order was the provincial synod which consisted of a minister and an elder or deacon from each church in the province.
Later the synod of Nimes (1572) decreed that no minister might be imposed upon an unwilling people.
Up to 1565 the national synod consisted of a minister with one or two elders or deacons from every church; after that date, to avoid overcrowding, its numbers were restricted to representatives from each provincial synod.
Synods were held in 1718, 1723, 1726 and 1727; and in a remote spot in Bas Languedoc in 1 744 a national synod assembled - the first since 1660 - which consisted of representatives from every province formerly Protestant.
In 1801 and 1802 Napoleon took into his own hands the independence of both Catholic and Protestant Churches, the national synod was abolished, and all active religious propaganda was rigorously forbidden.
This society held a synod at which a confession of faith and a book of order were drawn up. Meanwhile the national Protestant Church set itself to the work of reconstruction on the basis of universal suffrage, with restrictions, but no result was arrived at.
In 1574 the first provincial synod of Holland and Zealand was held, but William of Orange would not allow any action to be taken independently of the state.
These articles, however, never came into operation; and the decisions of the synod of Dort in 1578, which made the Church independent were equally fruitless.
In 1581 the Middelburg Synod divided the Church, created provincial synods and presbyteries, but could not shake off the civil power in connexion with the choice of church officers.
The Leiden magistrates said in 1581:" If we accept everything determined upon in the synod, we shall end by being vassals of the synod.
At the annual provincial synod, held by consent of the states, two ministers and one 3 Ibid.
When they prayed for the Imperial family and the Synod, she bowed very low and made the sign of the cross, saying to herself that even if she did not understand, still she could not doubt, and at any rate loved the governing Synod and prayed for it.
Then came the prayer just received from the Synod--a prayer for the deliverance of Russia from hostile invasion.