From Alexandria we get Athanasius, Didymus and Cyril; from Cyrene, Synesius; from Antioch, Theodore of Mopsuestia, John Chrysostom and Theodoret; from Palestine, Eusebius of Caesarea and Cyril of Jerusalem; from Cappadocia, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzus.
Later, however, as in the Commentary on this work written by Synesius to Dioscorus, priest of Serapis at Alexandria, which probably dates from the end of the 4th century, a changed attitude becomes apparent; the more practical parts of the receipts are obscured or omitted, and the processes for preparing alloys and colouring metals, described in the older treatise, are by a mystical interpretation represented as resulting in real transmutation.
The treatises are nearly all anterior to the 7th century, and most appear to belong to the 3rd and 4th centuries; some are the work of authentic authors like Zosimus and Synesius, while of others, such as profess to be written by Moses, Democritus, Ostanes, &c., the authorship is clearly fictitious.
Among the early Christians, Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Synesius were eclectics in philosophy.
In the formula used by Synesius (4,0) which is to be found in Bingham's Antiquities, we already find the attention of magistrates specially called to the censured person.
The compatibility of Christian and later Neo-Platonic ideas is evidenced by the writings of Synesius, bishop of Ptolemais, and though Neo-Platonism eventually succumbed to Christianity, it had the effect, through the writings of Clement and Origen, of modifying the tyrannical fanaticism and ultradogmatism of the early Christian writers.
SYNESIUS (c. 373 - c. 414), bishop of Ptolemais in the Libyan Pentapolis after 410, was born of wealthy parents, who claimed descent from Spartan kings, at Cyrene between 370 and 375.
After the successful Aurelian had granted the petition of the embassy, Synesius returned to Cyrene in 400, and spent the next ten years partly in that city, when unavoidable business called him there, but chiefly on an estate in the interior of the province, where in his own words "books and the chase" made up his life.
In 409 or 410 Synesius, whose Christianity had until then been by no means very pronounced, was popularly chosen to be bishop of Ptolemais, and, after long hesitation on personal and doctrinal grounds, he ultimately accepted the office thus thrust upon him, being consecrated by Theophilus at Alexandria.
Volkmann, Synesius von Cyrene (Berlin, 1869); A.
In the same century the study of Plato was represented by Synesius of Cyrene (c. 370-c. 41 3) and by the Neoplatonists of Alexandria and of Athens.
At Alexandria the noble Hypatia taught, to whose memory her impassioned disciple Synesius, afterwards a bishop, reared a splendid monument.
In fact, there were special cases, like that of Synesius, in which a speculative reconstruction of distinctively Christian doctrines by Christian men was winked at.
The hydrometer is said by Synesius Cyreneus in his fifth letter to have been invented by Hypatia at Alexandria,' but appears to have been neglected until it was reinvented by Robert Boyle, whose "New Essay Instrument," as described in the Phil.
As "urbs deserta," and Synesius, a native, describes it in the following century as a vast ruin at the mercy of the nomads.
Iv.); fragments of Philostorgius, Socrates, Sozomen, Zosimus, Synesius of Cyrene ("The Egyptian"), Claudian.
457,47 1, 6 3 2)- 'Eaanvot is also used by Synesius and Hippolytus, and its Latin equivalent by Pliny and Solinus; 'Eaaa70t by Hegesippus and Porphyry.
22) and by Synesius in his life of Dio Chrysostom.
Eunapius and Synesius call him a Lemnian; Photius a Tyrian; his letters refer to him as an Athenian.
Among these was Synesius, afterwards (c. 410) bishop of Ptolemais, several of whose letters to her, full of chivalrous admiration and reverence, are still extant.
These works are lost; but their titles, combined with expressions in the letters of Synesius, who consulted her about the construction of an astrolabe and a hydroscope, indicate that she devoted herself specially to astronomy and mathematics.
The hymns are short poems going back in part to the days of Prudentius, Synesius, Gregory of Nazianzus and Ambrose (4th and 5th centuries), but mainly the work of medieval authors.