To form the consistory all the elders with the ministers were to meet every Sunday under the presidency of one of the syndics or magistrates.
The syndics (or mayors) are now elected by a secret ballot of the communal council, though they are still government officials.
(from which some portions of this article are taken by permission of the syndics of the Camb.
The government was vested in the council (1 30uXii) and people (8rl/20s), and administered by civil officers with Greek titles, the proedros (president), the grammateus (secretary), the archons, syndics and dekaprotoi (a fiscal council of ten), following the model of a Greek municipality under the Roman Empire.
The signory appointed Piero Capponi, a man of great ability and patriotism, and experienced in diplomacy, the gonfaloniere Francesco Valori, the Dominican Giorgio Vespucci, and the jurisconsult and diplomatist Domenico Bonsi, rule, 's every five years, appointed all the magistrates and Y Y PP g syndics to conduct the negotiations with the French king.
When the king began to hint at the recall of Piero de' Medici, whose envoys had gained his ear, the signory ordered the citizens to be ready to fly to arms. The proposal was dropped, but Charles demanded an immense sum of money before he would leave the city; long discussions followed, and when at last he presented an insolent ultimatum the syndics refused to accept it.
One of the four town syndics was to preside over its sessions.
It was during this struggle that about 1287 (these privileges were finally sanctioned by the bishop in 1309) the citizens organized themselves into a commune or corporation, elected 4 syndics, and showed their independent position by causing a seal for the city to be prepared.
In the charter of 1387 we hear only of the conseil general (composed of all male heads of families) which acted as the legislature, and elected annually the executive of 4 syndics; no, doubt this form of rule existed earlier than 1387.
Even before 1387 there was also the petit conseil or conseil ordinaire or conseil etroit, a body not recognized by the law, though it became very powerful; it was composed of the 4 syndics, with several other counsellors, and acted originally as the adviser of the syndics who were legally responsible for the rule of the city.
By the Constitution of 1543 the conseil general had only the right of choosing the 4 syndics out of a list of 8 presented by the petit conseil and the Two Hundred, which therefore really elected them, subject to a formal approbation on the part of the larger body.
The delegates of the Clarendon Press in Oxford, and the syndics of the Pitt Press in Cambridge, entered into a liberal arrangement with the revisers, by which the necessary funds were provided for all their expenses.
Particular quarters of mercantile cities were assigned to foreign traders and were placed under the jurisdiction of their own magistrates, variously styled syndics, provosts (praepositi), echevins earliest foreign consuls were those established by Genoa, Pisa, Venice and Florence, between 1098 and 1196, in the Levant, at Constantinople, in Palestine, Syria and Egypt.
The Stadtrat consists of 3 2 members, of whom 15 are paid officials (including 2 syndics, 2 councillors for building, and 2 for education), while 17 serve gratuitously.
The syndics of Geneva address him in a letter written in 1540, and still preserved, as "Docteur Caulvin."
A general syndic, with two inferior syndics, chosen by the Council General, constitutes the supreme executive of the state.
The important van der Hoop collection arose out of bequests by Adrian van der Hoop and his widow in 1854 and 1880; but the most famous pictures in the Ryks Museum are perhaps the three which come from the Trippenhuis, namely, the so-called "Nightwatch" and the "Syndics of the Cloth Hall" by Rembrandt, and the "Banquet of the Civic Guard," by van der Helst.
The number of his papers and memoirs, some of them of considerable length, exceeds Boo; they were published, at the time they were composed, in various scientific journals in Europe and America, and are now embodied, through the enterprise of the syndics of the Cambridge University Press, in thirteen large quarto volumes.