' The " Great Synagogue " is semi-mythical.
Each synagogue is served by a rabbi assisted by an officiating minister, and in each consistory is a grand rabbi.
Mahommedan Babylonia (Persia) was the home of the gaonate, the central authority of religious Judaism, whose power transcended that of the secular exilarchate, for it influenced the synagogue far and wide, while the exilarchate was local.
The church, it was conceived, needed defence against the synagogue at all hazards, and the fear that the latter would influence and dominate the former was never absent from the minds of medieval ecclesiastics.
The Talmudic tradition (Baba Batlara 14b) that the men of the Great Synagogue " wrote " Ezekiel, may refer to editorial work by later scholars.'
Probably the recognition and appointment of elders was simply the transfer from the synagogue to the Church of a usage which was regarded as essential among Jews; and the Gentile churches naturally followed the example of the Jewish Christians.
There is a fine example in the synagogue at Great St Helens, London.
(3) Homiletic. Jellinek was probably the greatest synagogue orator of the 19th century.
More and more it became identified with the synagogue, in which the Law was expounded: more and more it became a matter for the individual and his private life.
Herod's nominees were not the men to extend the prestige of the high-priesthood at the expense of these rabbis: even in Jerusalem the synagogue became of more importance than the Temple.
Homage was paid to him by the rabbinical heads of the colleges (each of whom was called Gaon, q.v.); rich gifts were presented; he visited the synagogue in state, where a costly canopy had been erected over his seat.
That eminent scholars both in the synagogue and in the church should have been induced to believe in its antiquity is owing to the fact that the Zohar embodies many older opinions and doctrines, and the undoubted antiquity of some of them has served as a lever in the minds of these scholars to raise the late speculations about the En Soph, the Sephiroth, &c., to the same age.
They are post-exilic in their whole tone and belong to a time when prophecy had ceased and the synagogue worship was fully established (lxxiv.
On the other hand, in a collection intended for synagogue use - and the second collection of psalms is as a whole far more suitable to a synagogue than to the Temple - where there would not be a large choir and orchestra of skilled musicians, it would obviously be desirable to state whether the psalm was to be sung to a Davidic, Asaphic or Korahite tone, or to give the name of a melody appropriate to it.
Many other details are given in the treatise Soferim, but these for the most part refer primarily to the synagogue service after the destruction of the Temple.
Just as in the synagogue there was a plurality of rulers called elders, so there was in every Christian church a plurality of elders.
The line is traced through biblical teachers to Ezra, the first of the Sopherim or scribes, who handed on the charge to the "men of the Great Synagogue," a much-discussed term for a body or succession of teachers inaugurated by Ezra.
Such vicissitudes were the ordinary lot of the Jews for several centuries, and it was their own inner life - the pure life of the home, the idealism of the synagogue, and the belief in ultimate Messianic redemption - that saved them from utter demoralization and despair.
From Italy we may turn to the country which so much influenced Italian politics, Austria, which had founded the system of " Court Jews " in 1518, had expelled the Jews from Vienna as late as 1670, when the synagogue of that city was converted into a church.
In 1870 was founded the United Synagogue, which is a metropolitan organization, and the same remark applies to the more recent Federation of Synagogues.
The chief rabbi, who is the ecclesiastical head of the United Synagogue, has also a certain amount of authority over the provincial and colonial Jewries, but this is nominal rather than real.
It possesses two Evangelical churches, a synagogue and some small manufactures.
At the instance of an English nobleman he prepared an account of the religious customs of the Synagogue, Riti Ebraici (1637).
The synagogue collections, since they contained psalms which at this time were probably considered to be the work of David, were placed first, and the Temple collection added to them.
It contains one Roman Catholic and four Protestant churches, a synagogue, a fine town-hall dating from the 16th century, and several schools.
Visitors are shown the "Church of the Annunciation" with caves (including a fragment of a pillar hanging from the ceiling, and said to be miraculously supported) which are described as the scene of the annunciation, the "workshop of Joseph," the "synagogue," and a stone table, said to have been used by Christ.
Having been taught that there is no absolutely true religion, Mendelssohn's own descendants - a brilliant circle, of which the musician Felix was the most noted - left the Synagogue for the Church.
Scourging (although it had been a well-known punishment of the synagogue) was at first forbidden.
The result of this decision was that the synagogue at Caesarea was insulted on a Sabbath and the Jews left the city taking their books of the Law with them.
Hebrew religious poetry was revived for synagogue hymnology, and, partly in imitation of Arabian models, a secular Hebrew poetry was developed in metre and rhyme.
These and similar statements favouring the doctrines of the New Testament made many Kabbalists of the highest position in the synagogue embrace the Christian faith and write elaborate books to win their Jewish brethren over to Christ.
If to these causes be added a certain exclusiveness, which refused to meet a would-be convert more than half-way, we find no difficulty in accounting for the reluctance which the medieval and modern synagogue has felt on the subject.
Is correct), at all events not earlier than 150 B.C., a south Galilaean synagogue made a collection of the various religious poems current among its members.
Author of the epistle to the Hebrews; its use was foreign to the synagogue services on which, and not on those of the temple, the worship of the primitive Christians is well known to have been originally modelled; and its associations with heathen solemnities, and with the evil repute of those who were known as "thurificati," would still further militate against its employment.
It possesses two Protestant and four Roman Catholic churches, a synagogue, a mining school, a convent, a hospital, two orphanages, and barracks.
The Hungarian Jews did not consider themselves fully emancipated until the Synagogue was " duly recognized as one of the legally acknowledged religions of the country."
And V., that we find any number of psalms appropriate to such a ritual as that of the Temple, and it is difficult to resist the conviction that the earlier collections were made for use, not in the Temple at Jerusalem but in some synagogue or synagogues.
A more directly religious element, it is true, was introduced by the practice of attending the synagogue service; but it is to be The grammatical inflexions of the word "Sabbath" would show that it is a feminine form, properly shabbat-t for shabbat-t.
But this certainly was not the leading point of view with the mass of the Rabbins; 1 and at any rate it is quite certain that the synagogue is a post-exilic institution, and therefore that the Sabbath in old Israel must have been entirely different from the Sabbath of the Scribes.
It has an Evangelical church, two Roman Catholic churches, a synagogue and an old convent, now used as a lunatic asylum, and also the remains of a castle built in the 14th century by the Teutonic Order.
One of the former city gates (1615) remains, and there are a town hall, communal buildings (1863), court-house, weigh-house, synagogue and churches of various denominations, in one of which is the tomb of the naval hero of the 16th century, Lange, or Groote Pier (Long or Great Peter).
Prohibited interference with the synagogue worship ("Judaeorum sectarn nulla lege prohibitam satis constat "), and in 412 a special edict of protection was issued.
But it is to Spain that we must look for the best of the medieval poets of the synagogue, greatest among them being Ibn Gabirol and Halevi.
They declare their readiness to adapt the law of the synagogue to the law of the land, as for instance in the question of marriage and divorce.
In Spain there has been of late a more liberal attitude towards the Jews, and there is a small congregation (without a public synagogue) in Madrid.
In 1675 was consecrated in Amsterdam the synagogue which is still the most noted Jewish edifice in Europe.
Jews no longer attached to the Synagogue, such as the Herschels and Disraelis, attained to fame.
Within the Synagogue the reform movement began in 1825, and soon won many successes, the central conference of American rabbis and Union College (1875) at Cincinnati being the instruments of this progress.
They obtained in the synagogue from time immemorial, and were used by the Christian fathers in the interpretation of Scripture.
The Ark of the Law, in the Jewish synagogue, is a chest or cupboard containing the scrolls of the Torah (Pentateuch), and is placed against or in the wall in the direction of Jerusalem.
(1261) made conversion to the synagogue a capital crime.
Among the other prominent buildings are the theatre, the arsenal, the synagogue, the "Kaufhaus," the town-hall (Rathaus, 1771) and the observatory.
He connects the Christian ministry, not with the worship of the Temple, in which were priests and sacrificial ritual, but with that of the synagogue, which was a local institution providing spiritual edification by the reading and exposition of Scripture.'
The Law and the Prophets being alone used in the services of the synagogue, there was no authorized version of the rest of the Canon.
Already the Jews of the Dispersion had learned to supplement the Temple by the synagogue, and even the Jews of Jerusalem had not been free to spend their lives in the worship of the Temple.
The synagogue had become a firmly established institution, and the personal and social life of the masses had come under the control of communal law.
There are four Evangelical churches, a Roman Catholic church, a synagogue, several schools, a natural science museum, containing a collection of Harz minerals, the Fenkner museum of antiquities and a number of small foundations.
It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic (Gothic) church, a synagogue and a Progymnasium.
It forms one of the most decorative features of the synagogue, and of ten takes an architectural design, with columns, arches and a dome.