Creuzer's first and most famous work was his Symbolik and Mythologie der alten V dlker, besonders der Griechen (1810-1812), in which he maintained that the mythology of Homer and Hesiod came from an Eastern source through the Pelasgians, and was the remains of the symbolism of an ancient revelation.
Mysticism differs, therefore, from ordinary pantheism in that its inmost motive is religious; but, whereas religion is ordinarily occupied with a practical problem and develops its theory in an ethical reference, mysticism displays a predominatingly speculative bent, starting from the divine nature rather than from man and his surroundings, taking the symbolism of religious feeling as literally or metaphysically true, and straining after the present realization of an ineffable union.
We may here notice the important chemical symbolism or notation introduced by Berzelius, which greatly contributed to the definite and convenient representation of chemical composition and the tracing of chemical reactions.
Mercury calx was LJ .3 Bergman's symbolism was obviously cumbrous, and the system used in 1782 by Lavoisier was equally abstruse, since the forms gave no clue as to composition; for instance water, oxygen, and nitric acid werev 4), and e-f.
Muller, it had its origin in the worship of Zeus Laphystius; the fleece is the pledge of reconciliation; Jason is a propitiating god of health, Medea a goddess akin to Hera; Aeetes is connected with the Colchian sun-worship. Forchhammer saw in it an old nature symbolism; Jason, the god of healing and fruitfulness, brought the fleece - the fertilizing rain-cloud - to the western land that was parched by the heat of the sun.
The pastoral staff, as its name implies, symbolizes the pastoral office and authority, a symbolism already known to Isidore of Seville (De ecclesiast.
This symbolism is expressed in the words used, at least since the 10th century, by the consecrator in delivering the pastoral staff at the consecration of a bishop and the benediction of an abbot.
With this process, which in all its essential features was completed in the 11th century, doctrinal developments had little or nothing to do, though from the 9th century onwards liturgiologists were busy expounding the mystic symbolism of garments which, until their imagination set to work, had for the most part no symbolism whatever (see below).
The earliest record of any attempt to interpret this symbolism that we possess is, so far as the West is concerned, the short exposition in the Explicatio Missae of Germanus, bishop of Paris (d.
Nor is the argument that they are a visible manifestation of the continuity of the Church anything but a doubleedged weapon; for, as Father Braun pertinently asks, if these be their symbolism, of what was their disuse in the Church of England for nigh on 3 00 years a symbol?
In this he criticizes the bishops' Report in a sympathetic spirit, but points out how intimately the symbolism of the vestments had become associated with the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass, and how logical was the action of the Reformers in rejecting certain of these vestments.
But the structure of the book, the symbolism and the connexion of the prophet's thoughts have given rise to much controversy.
Owing to Semitic influence every Persian god had in Roman times come to possess a twofold significance - astrological and natural, Semitic and Iranian - the earlier and deeper Iranian significance being imparted by the clergy to the few intelligent elect, the more attractive and :superficial Chaldaean symbolism being presented to the multitude.
Michael Stifel and Johann Scheubelius (Scheybl) (1494-1570) flourished in Germany, and although unacquainted with the work of Cardan and Tartalea, their writings are noteworthy for their perspicuity and the introduction of a more complete symbolism for quantities and operations.
Its great merit consists in the complete notation and symbolism, which avoided the cumbersome expressions of the earlier algebraists, and reduced the art to a form closely resembling that of to-day.
A fantastic and elaborate doctrine of symbolism existed which comprised all nature; witchcraft, alchemy and medicine were its practical expressions.
The lofty symbolism of his prose is frequently obscure, but his lyrical verses are distinguished for their rapturous ecstasy and beauty of expression.
"In a language which is singularly poor in mystical works it stands with the Divina Commedia as one cf the two supreme attempts to express the eternal in the symbolism of a day, to paint the union of the soul with the supra-sensible while still imprisoned in the flesh."
It was represented in zodiacal symbolism by the god Ramman, crowned with a tiara and pouring water from a vase, or more generally by the vase and water without the god.
The Egyptians adopted from the Greeks, with considerable modifications of its attendant symbolism, the twelve-fold division of the zodiac. Aries became the Fleece; two Sprouting Plants, typifying equality or resemblance, stood for Gemini; Cancer was re-named Scarabaeus; Leo was converted, from the axe-like configuration of its chief stars, into the Knife: Libra into the Mountain of the Sun, a reminiscence, apparently, of the Euphratean association of the seventh month with a " holy mound," designating the biblical tower of Babel.
A zodiac on the " astrological altar of Gabies " in the Louvre illustrates the apportionment of the signs among the inmates of the Roman Pantheon; 3 and they occur as a classical reminiscence in the mosaic pavements of San Miniato and the baptistery at Florence the cathedral of Lyons, and the crypt of San Savino at Piacenza.4 Zodiacal symbolism became conspicuous in medieval art.
His prophecies (which are regularly dated) are assigned to various years from 592 to 570 B.C. The theme of the first twenty-four chapters of his book is the impending fall of Jerusalem, which took place actually in 586, and which Ezekiel foretells in a series of prophecies, distinguished by great variety of symbolism and imagery.
Prudentius shows Ambrose as his master here, but gives to Ambrose's mystic symbolism much clearer expression.
160, we have this symbolism enshrined in a literary form: " In company with Paul I followed, while everywhere Faith led the way, and set before me the fish from the fountain, mighty and stainless, whom a pure virgin grasped, and gave this to friends to eat always, having good wine and giving the mixt cup with bread."
There were, however, further changes, the result partly of doctrinal developments, partly of that passion for symbolism which by the 13th century had completed the evolution of the Catholic ritual.
The Romanesque churches, still reminiscent of antique models, had preserved all the simplicity of the ancient basilicas with much more than their grandeur; but the taste for religious symbolism which culminated in the 13th century, and the imaginative genius of the northern peoples, transformed them into the marvellous dreams in stone of the " Gothic " period.
The Anglican Church retains only the Biblical symbolism of " the blessing of the hand."
The amice, whatever its origin or symbolism, became specifically a vestment associated with the sacrifice of the Mass, and as such it was rejected with the other "Mass vestments" in England at the Reformation.
2t), a design for its own sake without the tie of symbolism or history.
But even in the Talmud the reign of Alexandra is described in apocalyptic language such as is commonly applied to the future age, and if allowance be made for the symbolism proper to revelations it is clear that essentially the scribe and the seer have the same purpose and even the same doctrines.
The future of symbolic logic as coherent with the rest of logic, in the sense which the word has borne throughout its history seems to be bound up with the question of the nature of the analysis that lies behind the symbolism, and of the way in which this is justified in the setting of a doctrine of validity.
It is useless to follow Boehme further, for his cosmogony is disfigured by a wild Paracelsian symbolism, and his constructive efforts in general are full of the uncouth straining of an untrained writer.
2 There we find, not indeed living serpents, but deities with serpent-symbolism, indicating a composition of various strata of religious belief, analogous to the evidence for serpent-symbolism from Babylonia, Crete, Greece or Peru; for the higher religions have almost invariably retained in their ritual and belief, sometimes with only slight modification, cruder conceptions which can still be studied in less elevated form among the lower races of India, Africa or America.
In general, works which endeavour to reduce the evidence for this fascinating subject to clearcut systems are more useful for the data they provide than for their conclusions, and it is not unnecessary to warn readers against the unscientific studies of " ophiolatry " and especially against " that portentous nonsense called the ` arkite symbolism ' " (see E.
Moehler, Symbolism (trans.
Some critics, however, think that the key of symbolism needs to be supplemented by that of mythology.
That this is the case at Chidambaram is known to every Hindu, for if he ever asks the priests to show him the God in the temple he is pointed to an empty space in the holy of holies, which has been termed the Akasa, or ether-linga."But, however congenial this refined symbolism may be to the worshipper of a speculative turn of mind, it is difficult to see how it could ever satisfy the religious wants of the common man little given to abstract conceptions of this kind.
LIGHTS The ceremonial use of lights in the Christian Church, with which this article is mainly concerned, probably has a double origin: in a very natural symbolism, and in the adaptation of certain and Jewish rites and customs of which the paganJ symbolic meaning was Christianized.
1 This symbolism - whatever it was - was not pagan, i.e.
To trace the gradual elaboration of the symbolism and use of ceremonial lights in the Church, until its full development and systematization in the middle ages, would be impossible here.
A later development, however, by which certain lights themselves came to be regarded as objects of worship and to have other lights burned before them, was condemned as idolatrous by the synod of Noyon in 1344.10 The passion for symbolism extracted ever new meanings out of the candles and their use.
The same symbolism is intended by the lighted tapers which must accompany the Host whenever it is carried in procession, or to the sick and dying.
As symbols of light and joy a candle is held on each side of the deacon when reading the Gospel at Mass; and the same symbolism underlies the multiplication of lights on festivals, their number varying with the importance of the occasion.
1901); the article " Licht " in Wetzer and Welte's Kirchenlexikon (Freiburg-i.-B., 1882-1901), an excellent exposition of the symbolism from the Catholic point of view, also " Kerze " and " Lichter ", W.
In1862-1867he lectured on church history at Andover, and after 1869 taught at the Union Theological Seminary - as instructor in church history in 1869-1870, and professor of theological cyclopaedia and Christian symbolism in 1870-1873, of Hebrew and cognate languages in 1873-1874, of sacred literature in 1874-1887, and of church history in 1887-1893.
He is at his best in the adaptation of the symbolism of old legend to modern uses.
This church, decorated with elaborate symbolism, was styled the "Ark of the Covenant," and in it the elect were to await the coming of the Lord.
Sympathy and symbolism, association of ideas and analogy, together with a certain amount of observation, are the explanation of the great mass of heteroscopic divinatory formulae.
57, where, upon a symbolical description of the Church as a sheepfold, he has superimposed the further symbolism of a ship).
But before his time and within a hundred years of Tertullian this symbolism in its original significance had become heretical, and the orthodox were thrown back on another explanation of it.