Ostensibly a solemn revenge for the burning of Greek temples by Xerxes, it has been justified as a symbolical act calculated to impress usefully the imagination of the East, and condemned as a senseless and vainglorious work of destruction.
It thus became in a high degree symbolical of the exaltation of the sacerdotal power.
An even more complete and minutely detailed view of the sacrificial system is no doubt obtained from the ceremonial manuals, the Kalpa-sutras; but it is just by the speculative discussions of the Brahmanasthe mystic significance and symbolical colouring with which they invest single rites - that we gain a real insight into the nature and gradual development of this truly stupendous system of ritual worship.
It is possible that the floating of the head of Orpheus to Lesbos has reference to the fact that the island was the first home of lyric poetry, and may be symbolical of the route taken by the Aeolian emigrants from Thessaly on their way to their new home in Asia Minor.
3); the symbolical processions in honour of "King Crispin" at Stirling and Edinburgh were particularly famous.
The doctrines of Christianity were by that time so firmly established that the Church could look upon a symbolical or mystical interpretation of them without anxiety.
Orseolo's victory was commemorated and its significance affirmed by the magnificent symbolical ceremony of the "wedding of the sea" (Sposalizio del Mar), celebrated henceforward every Ascension day.
Charlemagne in particular was closely connected with Jerusalem: the patriarch sent him the keys of the city and a standard in Boo; and in 807 Harun al-Rashid recognized this symbolical cession, and acknowledged Charlemagne as protector of Jerusalem and owner of the church of the Sepulchre.
Sometimes she wears a garland of flowers on her head, ears of corn and poppy-heads in her hand, symbolical of a prosperous harvest.
His style is unsystematic, brief and abounding in symbolical expression.
Both the roof and the walls are almost universally coated with stucco and covered with fresco paintings - in the earlier works merely decorative, in the later always symbolical or historical.
When a people migrate they may take with them their god, and if they conceive him to be a spiritual being who cannot be represented by an image, they may desire a symbolical expression of or, rather, a substitute for his presence.
Bishops, as belonging to the order of priesthood with completed powers, wear the same vestments as the priests, with the addition of ' The stole and maniple alone are symbolical of order, i.e.
From the latter's time onward a host of liturgists took up the theme, arguing from the form, the material, the colour and the fashion of wearing the various garments to symbolical interpretations almost as numerous as the interpreters themselves.
B., we obtain by comparison with the middle series the symbolical representation of all symmetric functions in brackets () appertaining to the quantities p i, P2, P3,ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ To obtain particular theorems the quantities a l, a 2, a 3, ...a, n are auxiliaries which are at our entire disposal.
Symbolic Form.-Restricting consideration, for the present, to binary forms in a single pair of variables, we must introduce the symbolic form of Aronhold, Clebsch and Gordan; they write the form Iln n n-1 n-1 n n n aixi+a2x2) = 44+(1) a l a 2 x 1 x2+...+a2.x2=az wherein al, a2 are umbrae, such that n-1 n-1 n a 1, a 1 a 2, ...a 1 a 2, a2 are symbolical respreentations of the real coefficients ï¿½o, ai,...
1 1 Hence it becomes necessary to have more than one set of umbrae, so that we may have more than one symbolical representation of the same real coefficients.
-2 _ ab 2an-2bn-2Crz z x () x x x, Each term on the right-hand side may be shown by permutation of a, b, c to be the symbolical representation of the same covariant; they are equivalent symbolic products, and we may accordingly write 2(ac) (bc)ai -1 bi -1 cx 2 =(ab)2a:-2b:-2c:, a relation which shows that the form on the left is the product of the two covariants n (ab) ay 2 by 2 and cZ.
The identities are, in particular, of service in reducing symbolic products to standard forms. A symbolical expression may be always so transformed that the power of any determinant factor (ab) is even.
The voyage was symbolical of Richelieu's whole pitiless career.
For instance, there are the symbols A, D, E used in the calculus of finite differences; Aronhold's symbolical method in the calculus of invariants; and the like.
Peacock, Symbolical Algebra (Cambridge, 1845); G.
Gregory, published a paper " on the real nature of symbolical algebra."
Elongated and more pointed it is the archaic crown of the Pharaohs (symbolical of upper Egypt), is worn by a Hittite god of the 14th century, and finds parallels upon old FIG.
When the deities were regarded as anthropomorphic they naturally wore clothing which, on the whole, was less subject to change of fashion and was apt to be symbolical of their attributes.
Long garments ornamented with symbolical designs (stars, &c.) are worn by Marduk and Adad.
38), and in general writers recognized the peculiar efficacy of the costume and its symbolical meaning (Philo, Vita Mosis, iii.
It was utilitarian and not symbolical, and from the nature of the purpose in view must have taken place before, rather than during, service.
369) is grateful to the deity, being indeed the most essential part of the sacrifice, or at least the vehicle by which alone it can successfully be conveyed to its destination, is also a very early one, if not absolutely primitive; and survivals of it are possibly to be met with even among the most highly cultured peoples where the purely symbolical nature of all religious ritual is most clearly understood and maintained.
There is not the slightest doubt that the censing of things and persons was first practised as an act of purification, and thus became symbolical of consecration, and finally of the sanctification of the soul.
The Egyptians understood the use of incense as symbolical of the purification of the soul by prayer.
The Palazzo della Ragione, with its great hall on the upper floor, is reputed to have the largest roof unsupported by columns in Europe; the hall is nearly rectangular, its length 2672 ft., its breadth 89 ft., and its height 78 ft.; the walls are covered with symbolical paintings in fresco; the building stands upon arches, and the upper storey is surrounded by an open loggia, not unlike that which surrounds the basilica of Vicenza; the Palazzo was begun in 1172 and finished in 1219; in 1306 Fra Giovanni, an Augustinian friar, covered the whole with one roof; originally there were three roofs, spanning the three chambers into which the hall was at first divided; the internal partition walls remained till the fire of 1420, when the Venetian architects who undertook the restoration removed them, throwing all three compartments into one and forming the present great hall.
According to some authorities, they were idealized historical personages; according to others, symbolical representations of the forces of nature.
The Teutonic heroes are, in the main, historical personages, never gods; though, like the Greek heroes, they are sometimes endowed with semi-divine attributes or interpreted as symbolical representations of natural forces.
Scyld Scefing," the protector with the sheaf ") lands on the Anglian or Scandinavian coast when a child, in a rudderless ship, asleep on a sheaf of grain, symbolical of the means whereby his kingdom shall become great; the son indicates the blessings of a fixed habitation, secured against the attacks of the sea.
The oath of fealty, which could be received by proxy, followed the act of homage; then came the ceremony of investiture, either directly on the ground or by the delivery of a turf, a handful of earth, a stone, or some other symbolical object.
Continuously Historical, Eschatological 4 and Symbolical Methods.
CROWN and Coronet, an official or symbolical ornament worn on or round the head.
The principles of interpretation on which he proceeded were, to import nothing into Scripture, but to draw out of it everything that it really contained, in conformity with grammaticohistorical rules; not to be hampered by dogmatical considerations; and not to be influenced by the symbolical books.
Moreover, he did not believe that Zwingli, who con ceived the eucharist to be merely symbolical in its character, " held the whole truth of God."
Others, who hold no less strongly to theological progress by evolution, not revolution, will hesitate to grant that the line of advance passes through the symbolical books.
All these set forth in their symbolical books the supreme place of Scripture, accepting the position which Zwingli laid down in 1536 in The First Helvetic Confession, namely, that "Canonic Scripture, the Word of God, given by the Holy Spirit and set forth to the world by the Prophets and Apostles, the most perfect and ancient of all philosophies, alone contains perfectly all piety and the whole rule of life."
Gradually the separation from the church became more complete: the sacraments were regarded as merely symbolical; the priests became helpers of the faithful; ceremonies disappeared; and a new religious society arose equally unlike the medieval church and the Protestantism of the 16th century.
In point of doctrine they acknowledged the seven sacraments, but gave them a symbolical meaning; they prayed to the Virgin and saints, and admitted auricular confession, but they denied purgatory and the sacrifice of the mass, and did not observe fasts or festivals.
The Old-Dorian Hercules is represented in three cycles of myth, the Argive, the Boeotian and the Thessalian; the legends of Arcadia, Aetolia, Lydia, &c., and Italy are either local or symbolical and comparatively late.
Of his seven great symbolical, doctrinally interpreted " signs," John shares three, the cure of the ruler's son, the multiplication of the loaves, the walking on the waters, with the Synoptists: yet here the first is transformed almost beyond recognition; and the two others only typify and prepare the eucharistic discourse.
His attributes were the spear and the burning torch, symbolical of the devastation caused by war (in ancient times the hurling of a torch was the signal for the commencement of hostilities).
It is suggested by Welcker that the legend is symbolical of the vain struggle of man in the pursuit of knowledge.
Reinach (Revue archeologique, 1904) finds the origin of the story in a picture, in which Sisyphus was represented rolling a huge stone up Acrocorinthus, symbolical of the labour and skill involved in the building of the Sisypheum.
The popular hatred of Judas has found strange symbolical expression in various parts of Christendom.
It was not until the 13th century that the symbolical meaning of the cross began to be elaborated, and this was still further accentuated from the 14th century onward by the increasingly widespread custom of adding to it the figure of the crucified Christ and other symbols of the Passion.
- The symbolical books of the Lutheran Church, following the teaching of Luther himself, declare the doctrine of the real presence of Christ's body and blood in the eucharist, together with the bread and wine (consubstantiation), as well as the ubiquity of his body, as the orthodox doctrine of the church.
Similarly, the idea of God is a symbolical representation of the voice of conscience guiding from within.
75, 123) Pegasus, like Anion the fabled offspring of Demeter and Poseidon, was a curse-horse, symbolical of the rapidity with which curses were fulfilled.
Further, in comparing the labours of Archimedes and Vieta, the effect of increased power of symbolical expression is very noticeable.
The sacrifice of foreign prisoners before a god, a regular scene on temple walls, is perhaps only symbolical, at any rate for the later days of Egyptian history, but foreign intruders must often have suffered rude treatment at the hands of the Egyptians, in spite of the generally mild character of the latter.
Meyer also published an edition of the New Testament, with a translation (1829) and a Latin version of the symbolical books of the Lutheran Church (1830).
Its distinctive features are pulpit and auditorium, and it is symbolical of the complete equality of ministers and congregation.
After I had learned a great many interesting things about the life and habits of the children of the sea--how in the midst of dashing waves the little polyps build the beautiful coral isles of the Pacific, and the foraminifera have made the chalk-hills of many a land--my teacher read me "The Chambered Nautilus," and showed me that the shell-building process of the mollusks is symbolical of the development of the mind.