He was on the way to suppress a revolt in Swabia when he was murdered on the st of May 1308, at Windisch on the Reuss, by his nephew John, afterwards called "the Parricide," whom he had deprived of his inheritance.
For during the year that elapsed before he left Swabia (and whilst he sojourned at Neuburg and Ulm), and amidst his geometrical studies, he would fain have gathered some knowledge of the mystical wisdom attributed to the Rosicrucians; but the Invisibles, as they called themselves, kept their secret.
The German master - now grand master and German master in one - had his headquarters at Mergentheim in Swabia; the revenues of the states scattered throughout the twelve bailiwicks of Germany sustained him and his Order.
Here, with the burden of the day now past, the fine old crusader - he had joined before in the Second Crusade, forty years ago - perished by accident in the river; and of all his fine army only a thousand men won their way through, under his son, Frederick of Swabia, to join the ranks before Acre (October 1190).
In the same year, however, Isaac was dethroned by his brother, Alexius III.; but Henry married Isaac's daughter Irene to his brother, Philip of Swabia, and thus attempted to give the Hohenstaufen a new title and a valid claim against the usurper Alexius.
Philip of Swabia, engaged in a struggle with the papacy, found Innocent III.
CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH SCHONBEIN (1799-1868), chemist, was born at Metzingen, Swabia, on the 18th of October 1799, and died at Sauersberg, near Baden Baden, on the 29th of August 1868.
First (908-910) they ravaged Thuringia, Swabia and Bavaria, and defeated the Germans on the Lechfeld, whereupon the German king Henry I.
Having assumed the title of king of Jerusalem and Sicily, Conradin took possession of the duchy of Swabia in 1262, and remained for some time in his dukedom.
In 944 Lorraine was given to Conrad, surnamed the Red, who in 947 married the king's daughter Liutgard; Franconia was retained by Otto in his own hands; Henry married a daughter of Arnulf, duke of Bavaria, and received that duchy in 947; and Swabia came in 949 to the king's son Ludolf, who had married Ida, a daughter of the late duke, Hermann.
After the death in 950 of Lothair, king of Italy, Berengar sought the hand of his widow Adelaide for his son Adalbert; and Henry of Bavaria and Ludolf of Swabia had already been meddling independently of each other in the affairs of northern Italy.
Ludolf and Conrad were declared deposed, and in 953 war broke out in Lorraine and Swabia, and afterwards in Saxony and Bavaria.
In conjunc tion with Andrea and Selnecker he induced the Lutherans of Saxony and Swabia to adopt the Formula Concordiae and so become one body.
Blindheim), a village of Bavaria, Germany, in the district of Swabia, on the left bank of the Danube, 30 m.
ALGAU, or Allgau, the name now given to a comparatively small district forming the south-western corner of Bavaria, and belonging to the province of Swabia and Neuburg, but formerly applied to a much larger territory, which extended as far as the Danube on the N., the Inn on the S.
He was succeeded by his brother Hermann I., during whose reign Thuringia suffered greatly from the ravages of the adherents of Philip, duke of Swabia, and also from those of his rival Otto of Brunswick.
Ordained priest in 1520, and appointed preacher (1522) at Hall in Swabia, he gave himself to biblical exposition.
In 1235 he was made duke of Swabia and in 1237 was chosen king of the Romans, or German king, at Vienna, in place of his half-brother Henry, an election which was subsequently confirmed by the diet at Spires.
HOHENSTAUFEN, the name of a village and ruined castle near Lorsch in Swabia, now in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, which gave its name to a celebrated Swabian family, members of which were emperors or German kings from 1138 to 1208, and again from 1214 to 1254.
He was a firm supporter of the emperor Henry IV., who rewarded his fidelity by granting him the dukedom of Swabia in 1079, and giving him his daughter Agnes in marriage.
In 1081 he remained in Germany as Henry's representative, but only secured possession of Swabia after a struggle lasting twenty years.
In 1152 Frederick received the duchy of Swabia from his cousin the German king Frederick I., and on his death in 1167 it passed successively to Frederick's three sons Frederick, Conrad and Philip. The second Hohenstaufen emperor was Frederick Barbarossa's son, Henry VI., after whose death a struggle for the throne took place between Henry's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, and Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV.
Daughters of Philip of Swabia married Ferdinand III., king of Castile and Leon, and Henry II, duke of Brabant, and a daughter of Conrad, brother of the emperor Frederick I., married into the family of Guelph.
After suppressing a rising in Lorraine, difficulties arose in southern Germany, probably owing to Otto's refusal to grant the duchy of Swabia to Henry II., the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria.
By the marriage, in 1149, of Adela of Vohburg with the emperor Frederick I., Eger came into the possession of the house of Swabia, and remained in the hands of the emperors until the 13th century.
For ten years a Germany weakened and divided by the rivalry of Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick left his hands free to act in Italy, and his pontificate marks a period of comparative quiet in the ardent Empire* conflict between pope and emperor which continued throughout the middle ages.
Died in Septe i ber 1197, some of the princes under the leadership of Ado ph, archbishop of Cologne, were anxious to find a rival to P ilip, duke of Swabia, who had been elected German king.
The country mainly belongs to the basins of the Danube and the Main; by far the greater portion being drained by the former river, which, entering from Swabia as a navigable stream, traverses the entire breadth of the kingdom, with a winding course of 200 m., and receives in its passage the Iller, the Lech, the Isar and the Inn from the south, and the Naab, the Altmuhl and the WBrnitz from the north.
The southern divisions of Swabia and Upper Bavaria, where pasture-land predominates, form a cattle-breeding district and the dairy produce is extensive.
The reason for this rising was that the king had granted the duchy of Swabia to Henry's enemy, Otto, a grandson of the emperor Otto the Great, and had given the new Bavarian East Mark, afterwards known as Austria, to Leopold I., count of Babenberg.
He was the uncle and guardian of Conradin of Hohenstaufen, and when this prince was put to death in Italy in 1268, Louis and his brother Henry inherited the domains of the Hohenstaufen in Swabia and elsewhere.
To the west the Lech still divided Bavaria from Swabia, but on three Area of other sides the opportunities for extension had been securing Lower Bavaria for himself, united the whole of the duchy under his sway.
Died in 1198 Hermann's support was purchased by the late emperor's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, but as soon as Philip's cause appeared to be weakening he transferred his allegiance to Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV.
These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wurzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included Wtirttemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thulingen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Frlesland (Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
Rhine valley and in Swabia and Franconia.
Generally speaking, South Germany is predominantly Roman Catholic. Sothe districts along the Danube (province of Bavaria, Upper Palatinate, Swabia), southern \Vurttemberg and Baden, and in Alsace-Lorraine are entirely so.
In the south-west the Alamanni occupied the territory afterwards called Swabia (q.v.), and extended along the middle Rhine until they met the Ripuarian Franks, then living in the northern part of the district which at a later period was called after them, Franconia (q.v.); and in the south-east were the Bavarians, although it was some time before their country came to be known as Bavaria (q.v.).
When in 496, or soon afterwards, the Alamanni were defeated, they were confined to what was afterwards known as Swabia, and the northern part of their territory was incorporated with the kingdom of the Franks.
In Saxony, for example, we hear of Duke Otto the Illustrious, who also ruled over Thuringia; and during the early years of the 10th century dukes appear id Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine.
The dukes of Bavaria, Swabia and Lorraine were displeased at this election, probably because Conrad was likely to prove considerably more powerful than they wished.
Bavaria and Swabia yielded, but, mainly through the fault of the king himself, their submission was of brief duration.
They had now induced Conrad to quarrel with both Swabia and Bavaria, and also with Henry, duke of Saxony, son of the duke to whom he chiefly owed his crown.
Almost immediately he overcame the opposition of the dukes of Swabia and Bavaria; some time later, taking advantage of the troubled state of France, he accepted the homage of the duke of Lorraine, which for many centuries afterwards remained a part of the German kingdom.
The barbarians accepted hit terms, and faithfully kept their word in regard to Henrys own lands, although Bavaria, Swabia and Franconia they occasionally invaded as before.
He was joined by Eberhard, duke of Franconia, and it was only by the aid of the duke of Swabia, whom the duke of Franconia had offended, that the rising was put down.
The duchy of Swabia was also brought intc Ottos family by the marriage of his son Ludolf with Dukc Hermanns daughter, and by these means Otto made himself master of the kingdom.
Conrad the Red hurried from Italy and joined the rebels; in Swabia, in Bavaria, in Franconia and even in Saxony, the native land of the king, many sided with them.
In 973 Burchard II., duke of Swabia, died, and the new emperor refused to give this duchy to Henry, further irritating this duke by bestowing it upon his enemy, Otto, a grandson of the emperor Otto I.
Bavaria was taken from him and given to Otto of Swabia, but it was deprived of some of its importance.
In 1026, when Duke Henry of Bavaria died, he obtained the duchy for his son Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry III.; later, despite the opposition of the nobles, he invested the same prince with Swabia, where the ducal family had died out.
In dealing with the revolt of nobles Ernest of Swabia Conrad was aided by the reluctance a-nd the of the vassals of the great lords to follow them against land.
Cowed, but unpacified and discontented, the princes awaited their opportunity, while the king played into their hands by allowing the southern duchies, Swabia, Bavaria and Carinthia, to pass from under his own immediate ~7 ~ control.
Assumed the duties of government soon after the fall of Adalbert and quickly made enemies of many of the chief princes, including Otto of Nordheim, the powerful duke of Bavaria, Rudolph, duke of Swabia, and rule.
Although the pope forgave him, the German princes, resolved not to miss the chance which-fortune had given them, met in March 1077, and deposed him, electing Rudolph, duke of Swabia, as his successor.
Rudolphs in Swabia and Saxony.
However, the fortune of war soon turned, and in October 1080 Rudolph of Swabia was defeated and slain.
Bad given the duchy of Swabia when its duke Rudolph became his rival.
Henry was perhaps the I~ost powerful of the kings subjects, nevertheless the dukes of Swabia and Franconia withstood him, and a long war desolated South Germany.
Of Swabia who had fought along with Conrad against becomes king.
Of Bohemia joined the circle of Henrys enemies, and the southern duchies, Bavaria, Swabia and Austria, were too much occupied with internal quarrels to send help to the harassed emperor.
While they were thus employed the friends of the house of Hohenstaufen, convinced that Fredericks kingship was not possible, chose the late emperors brother, Philip, duke of Swabia, to fill the vacant throne; soon afterwards the enemies of the house found a candidate in the person of.
The efforts of the pope helped to rekindle the expiring flames of war, and for a year or two success completely deserted Philip. He lost the support of Ottakar of Bohemia and ofHer~ann I., landgrave of Thuringia; he was driven from North Germany into Swabia and Ottos triumph seemed assured.
But in 1234, at a time of great and increasing disorder in Germany, he rebelled; he appealed publicly to the princes for support, gained some followers, especially in his own duchy of Swabia, and made an alliance with the Lombard cities.