The grand khan was the lord paramount or suzerain of the Russian princes, and he had the force required for making his authority respected.
Of Muscovy, while, as suzerain of Moldavia, John Albert was favourably situated for attacking the Turks.
As representing the pope, the suzerain of Henry, he claimed the regency and actually divided the chief power with William Marshal, earl of Pembroke.
By a treaty made between Great Britain and Siam in 1902 the northern Malay states of the peninsula were admitted to lie within the Siamese sphere of influence, but by a treaty of 1909 Siam ceded her suzerain rights over the states of Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis to Britain.
Those of the Volga and the Don professed allegiance to the tsar of Muscovy, whilst those of the Dnieper recognized at first as their suzerain the king of Poland.
The only hope of the Jews lay in the clemency of their victorious suzerain, and it did not fail them.
In the 9th and 8th centuries B.C. they became the chief power within their sphere and the suzerain of their parent Babylon.
In the contests which followed there can be no doubt that the Palmyrene princes cherished the idea of an independent empire of their own, though they never threw over their allegiance to the Roman suzerain until the closing act of the drama.
Thus conceived as the holder of a great fief, the king had only the rights of suzerain over the four great baronies and the twelve minor fiefs of his kingdom.
At the same time, if our text is thus late, it must be remembered that its content gives us the earliest and purest exposition of French feudalism, and describes for us the organization of a kingdom, where all rights and duties were connected with the fief, and the monarch was only a suzerain of feudatories.
During the 9th and 10th centuries it was the subject of dispute between more than one count of Galicia and the suzerain, and its coasts were repeatedly ravaged by the Normans.
Stephen contrived to hold his own by adroitly contracting an alliance with the powerful Neapolitan Angevins who had the ear of the pope; but Ladislaus (q.v.) was so completely caught in the toils of the Kumanians, that the Holy See, the suzerain of Hungary, was forced to intervene to prevent the relapse of the kingdom into barbarism, and the unfortunate Ladislaus perished in the crusade that was preached against him.
It was in the sixth year of Nabonidus (549 B.C.) - or perhaps in 553 - that Cyrus, " king of Anshan" in Elam, revolted against his suzerain Astyages, king of " the Manda " or Scythians, at Ecbatana.
In this way Baldwin was able to make himself into practical suzerain of the three Christian principalities of the north, though the suzerainty was, and always continued to be, somewhat nominal.
It could be received only by the suzerain in person.
The act of liege homage to a particular lord did not interfere with the vassal's allegiance as a subject to his sovereign, or with his duty to any other suzerain of whom he might hold lands.
Nominally the sultan of Tidore is still the suzerain of western New Guinea, but his authority is scarcely recognized, except on some few shores and adjacent islands, and practically Dutch New Guinea used to be administered partly from Ternate and partly from Timor, upon more peaceful lines than was the case when the rule of the Dutch in New Guinea largely consisted of the sending of a warship now and again to some distant island or bay to burn a kampong, to punish rebellious villagers, and thus assert or reassert Dutch authority, or that of the sultan, who is their vassal.
In 1822 John Crawfurd was sent to Bangkok to negotiate a treaty with the suzerain power, but the mission was unsuccessful.
These negotiations continued all through 1908 and resulted in a treaty, signed and ratified in 1909, by which Siam ceded to Great Britain her suzerain rights over the dependencies of Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu and Perlis, Malay states situated in southern Siam just north of British Malaya, containing in all about a million inhabitants and for the most part flourishing and wealthy, and obtained the practical abolition of British jurisdiction in Siam proper as well as relief from any obligations which, though probably very necessary when they were incurred, had long since become mere useless and vexatious obstacles to progress towards efficient government.
After Palermo had been taken in January 1072 Robert Guiscard, as suzerain, invested Roger as count of Sicily, but retained Palermo, half of Messina and the north-east portion (the Val Demone).
This offer was refused both by the bishop and by the citizens, while in 1420 the emperor Sigismund declared that he alone was the suzerain of the city, and forbade any one to attack it or harm it in any fashion.
His attempt to carve a principality for his son out of Moldavia led to the outbreak of a third war between suzerain and subject in February 1651.
The first step making for security was to build a fleet strong enough to provide against the anarchical condition of those parts; but this implied a direct attack not only upon the Crimean khan, who was mainly responsible for the conduct of the Volgan hordes, but upon the khan's suzerain, the Turkish sultan.
He wished to acquire the mastery of souls by unifying the faith and centralizing the priesthood, but he also aspired to possess temporal supremacy, if not as direct owner, at least as suzerain, over all the national crowns, and thus to realize the idea with which he was penetrated and which he himself expressed clearly.
And, in fact, he exercised or` claimed suzerain rights, together with the political and pecuniary advantages accruing, over the greater number of the lay sovereigns of his time.
In 1213 the pope, became not only the nominal suzerain but, de facto and de jure, the veritable sovereign of England, and during the last years of John and the first years of Henry III.
Though most of the Silesian dynasts seemed ready to acquiesce, the burghers of Breslau fiercely repudiated the new suzerain, and before he could enforce his claims to homage he was ousted by the Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus, who was readily recognized as overlord (1469) .
The Anglo-Russian convention of 1907 determined the following conditions with respect to Tibet - the recognition of the suzerain rights of China and the territorial and administrative integrity of the country; that no official representative at Lhasa should be appointed either by England or by Russia, and that no concessions for railways, mines, &c., should be sought by either power.
The aristocratic republic of Poland was obviously the most convenient suzerain for a Livonian nobleman; so, in 1698, Patkul proceeded to the court of the king-elector at Dresden and bombarded Augustus with proposals for the partition of Sweden.
In 1152 by a marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, the divorced wife of the French king Louis VII., he acquired Poitou, Guienne and Gascony; but in doing so incurred the ill-will of his suzerain from which he suffered not a little in the future.
M., and a population (1895) of 1,591,036 inhabitants, owning Turkey as suzerain, were placed under the administration of Austria-Hungary, and their annexation in 1908 was recognized by the Powers in 1909, so that they became part of the dominions of the monarchy.
For a time Malik al-Na~ir was recognized as suzerain in north Africa, the Arabian Irak, and Asia Minor, but he was unable to make any permanent conquests in any of these countries.
England and France could hardly sit still under this affront, and decided to administer chastisement by the hand of the suzerain power, which was delighted to have an opportunity of asserting its authority.
The Sakiyas were still a republic. They had republics for their neighbours on the east and south, but on the western boundary was the kingdom of Kosala, the modern Oudh, which they acknowledged as a suzerain power.
Themselves, they were united by their common recognition of the Egyptian suzerain, their court of appeal, or in some shortlived attempt to withstand him.
In the " Amarna" age the little kings had a certain measure of inde pendence, provided they guarded the royal caravan routes, paid tribute, refrained from conspiracy, and generally supported their suzerain and his agents.
Once more, as in the days of Simon, the suzerain power was divided against itself, and, though Rome was as strong as the Seleucids had been weak, Caesar was grateful.
Megasthenes mentions that India was divided into one hundred and eighteen kingdoms; some of which, such as that of the Prasii under Chandragupta, exercised suzerain powers.
Al-Aghlab, the governor of Africa, succeeded in making himself independent of the central government, on condition of paying a fixed annual tribute to his suzerain the caliph.
The British meanwhile had turned their attention to the north of the island, over which the sultan of Sulu exercised the rights of suzerain, and from him, in 1759, Alexander Dalrymple obtained possession of the island of Balambangan, and the whole of the north-eastern promontory.
By first connecting himself with John through his marriage with the English king's daughter Joan, by straining every nerve to repress dissensions and enforce obedience amongst the Welsh chieftains, and later by allying himself with the English barons against his suzerain, this prince during a reign of 44 years was enabled to give a considerable amount of peace and prosperity to his country, which he persistently sought to rule as an independent sovereign, although acknowledging a personal vassalage to the king of England.
During his father's lifetime he was recognized as suzerain by Fulk l'Oison ("the Gosling"), count of Vendome, the son of his half-sister Adela.
He then tried to win recognition as dukes of Aquitaine for the sons of his wife Agnes by William the Great, who were still minors, but Fulk Nerra promptly took up arms to defend his suzerain William the Fat, from whom he held the Loudunois and a tan g S h= - Saintonge in fief against his son.
The Persian Empire of the Achaemenids.The balance, however, was disturbed in 553 B.C., when the Persian Cyrus, king of Anshan in Elam (Susiana), revolted against Conques~ his suzerain Astyages, the son of Cyaxares, and o, Cynis three years later defeated him at Pasargadae ~i and Shortly afterwards Astyages was taken prisoner, Cambyses, Ecbatana reduced, and the Median Empire replaced by thi Persian.
This proceeding quickly led to war with his suzerain Artabanus IV.
Theresa renewed the struggle against her half-sister and suzerain Urraca in 1116-1117, and again in I r 20; in 1121 she was besieged in Lanhoso and captured.
" Suzerain," a term of feudal law, is now used to describe persons or states in positions of superiority to others.
Suzerain has been defined as " Qui possede un fief dont d'autres fiefs relevent " (Littre and Dictionnaire de l'academic francaise).
Bousquet (Nouveau dictionnaire de droit) defines suzerain as " superieur, celui dont un fief relevait "; Rogulau (Glossaire du droit francois), " superieur en quelque charge ou dignite autre que le roy."
But it was used in France to describe a feudal lord, the supreme suzerain being the king.
Gairal (Le Protectorat international) distinguishes suzerainty from protectorate in these respects: (a) suzerainty proceeds from a concession on the part of the suzerain (p. 112); (b) the vassal state is bound to perform specific services; and (c) the vassal state has larger powers of action than those belonging to a protected state; (d) there is reciprocity of obligation.
Despagnet the term suzerain is applicable to a case in which a state concedes a fief, in virtue of its sovereignty (Essai sur le protectorat international, p. 46), reserving to itself certain rights as the author of this concession.
Another writer draws these distinctions: (a) a state connected by protectorship with another previously enjoyed autonomy; the vassal state did not; (b) the protected state retains its nationality and its internal administration; the vassal state acquires a distinct nationality; (c) the establishment of a protectorate modifies few of the institutions of the protectorate state except as to foreign relations; the establishment of a suzerainty changes the institutions of the vassal state; (d) the protected state exercises its internal sovereignty a peu pres pleinement; the vassal state remains subordinate in several respects; (e) while the protected state has the right to be assisted in case of war by the protecting state, but is not bound to defend the latter, the vassal state is bound to aid its suzerain (Tchomacoff, De la Souverainete, p. 53) See also Hachenburger, De la Nature juridique du protectorat.
There is one practical difference between the two relations: while the protecting and protected states tend to draw nearer, the reverse is true of the suzerain and vassal states; a protectorate is generally the preliminary to incorporation, suzerainty to separation.
Sometimes it is said that the territory of the vassal state forms part of the territory of the suzerain; a proposition which is true for some purposes, but not for all.
The word suzerain is used in the Pretoria convention of the 3rd of August 1881 between the British government and the late South African Republic. The convention (by its preamble) granted to the inhabitants complete self-government, " subject to the suzerainty of her Majesty," and this suzerainty was reaffirmed in the articles.
His title as duke of Lorraine was confirmed by his suzerain, the Emperor Sigismund, at Basel in 1434.
The status of each class of persons interested in the soil, from the government as suzerain, through the zaminddrs or superior landholders, the intermediate tenure-holders and the undertenants, down to the actual cultivator, is now clearly defined.
In 1330 the voivode John Bassaraba 1 or Bazarab the Great (1310-38) succeeded in inflicting a crushing defeat on his suzerain King Charles I.
In October Prince Charles proceeded to Constantinople and was cordially received by his suzerain, the sultan, who bestowed on him the firman of investiture, admitted the principle of hereditary succession in his family, and allowed him the right of maintaining an army of 30,000 men.
The irritation of the powers at the unexpected delay was so great that Great Britain proposed a collective note on the subject, to be executed by the Austrian cabinet; while Prince Bismarck threatened, if the Berlin proposition were not carried out, to refer to the suzerain power at.
In the meanwhile it continues to pay each of the suzerain powers £ 4 o a year, levied by a tax on pastures.
His attempt to carve a principality for his son out of Moldavia, which Poland regarded as her vassal, led to the outbreak in 1651 of a third war between subject and suzerain, which speedily assumed the dignity and the dimensions of a crusade.
Nor di,d this seem impossible; he owned a far broader and wealthier domain beyond the Channel than did his nominal suzerain King Louis VII., andwhat was of more importancehe far excelled that prince both in vigour and in capacity.
This was to be but the first of many disappointments in this direction; there was apparently some fatal scruple, both in Henrys own mind and in that of his continental subjects, as to pressing their suzerain too hard.