Another of Yung-lo's bells is hung in a Buddhist temple outside the north-west angle of the city wall, and is covered both on the inside and outside with the Chinese texts of the Lankavatara Sutra, and the Saddharma pundarika Sutra.
The distinctive badge of a member of the three upper castes was the sacred triple cord or thread (sutra) - made of cotton, hemp or wool, according to the respective caste - with which he was invested at the upanayana ceremony, or initiation into the use of the sacred savitri, or prayer to the sun (also called gayatri), constituting his second birth.
And accordingly it is exactly in connexion with these two incarnations of Vishnu, especially that of Krishna, that a new spirit was infused into the religious life of the people by the sentiment of fervent devotion to the deity, as it found expression in certain portions of the epic poems, especially the Bhagavadgita, and in the Bhagavatapurana (as against the more orthodox Vaishnava works of this class such as the Vishnupurana), and was formulated into a regular doctrine of faith in the Sandilya-sutra, and ultimately translated into practice by the Vaishnava reformers.
This is the circumstance which has given its name to a Sanskrit work, the Mahabhinishkramana Stara, or Sutra of the Great Renunciation.
Professor Jacobi translated two more, the Uttaradhyayana and the Sutra Kritanga.
Each sutra (Pali, sutta) is very short; usually occupying only a page, or perhaps two, and containing a single proposition.
Professor Jacobi has edited and translated the Kalpa Sutra, containing a life of the founder of the Jain order; but this can scarcely be older than the 5th century of our era.