These far extensions furnish the basis for a vast amount of exploratory survey of a strictly geographical character, and they have contributed largely towards raising the standard of accuracy in Asiatic geographical surveys to a level which was deemed unattainable fifty years ago.
With the completion of the surveys of Baluchistan and Makran much light has also been thrown on the ancient connexion between east and west; and the final settlement of the southern galuch- boundaries of Afghanistan has led to the reopening of istan and one at least of the old trade routes between Seistan Makran.
In Arabia progress has been slower, although the surveys carried out by Colonel Wahab in connexion with the boundary determined in the Aden hinterland added more exact geographical Arabia.
A similar map, mainly based upon surveys made by Austrian officers and revised by H.
Surveys were also made along the Indian coasts.
Of scientific geographical exploration in Asia (beyond the limits of actual surveys) the modern period has been so prolific that it is only possible to refer in barest outline to some of the principal Indian expeditions, most of which have been directed either to explorers.
The result of trans-border surveys to the north and west of India has been to establish the important geographical fact that it is by two gateways only, one on the north-west and one on the west of India, that the central Asiatic tides of immigration have flowed into the peninsula.
After a highly useful career, under the presidency till 1813 of Sir John Sinclair, the Board of Agriculture was dissolved in 1819, but left in its statistical account, county surveys and other documents much interesting and valuable information regarding the agriculture of the period.
When the war was over and these cessions had been made a great number of war veterans wished an opportunity to repair their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of receiving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an ordinance on the 20th of May 1785 by which the present national system of land-surveys into townships 6 In.
Railway Company was formed by the bank under this agreement, to construct and work the line, and surveys were made in 1897, the town of Harbin being founded as headquarters for the work.
These materials generally include reconnaissance survey of small districts, route surveys and astronomical observations supplied by travellers, and information obtained from native sources.
Von Hauslab, director of the Austrian Surveys, in 1842, advised that the darkest tints should be allotted to the highlands, so that they might not obscure details in the densely peopled plains.
Having determined the difference of latitude between Alexandria and Syene which he erroneously believed to lie on the same meridian, and obtained the distance of those places from each other from the surveys made by Egyptian geometers, he concluded that a degree of the meridan measured 700 stadia.'
The map is supposed to be based upon actual surveys or rather reconnaissances, and if it be borne in mind that.
Among the more important productions of more recent times, may be mentioned a map of the empire, said to be based upon actual surveys by Yhang (721), who also manufactured FIG.
In the case of Japan, the earliest reference to a map is of 646, in which year the emperor ordered surveys of certain provinces to be made.
The maritime discoveries and surveys of that age of great discoveries were laid down upon so-called " plane-charts," that is, charts having merely equidistant parallels indicated upon them, together with the equator, the tropics and polar FIG.
Leonardo da Vinci, the famous artist, while in the service of Cesare Borgia as military engineer, made surveys of several districts in central Italy.
The so-called " Nancy globe " is of chased silver, richly ornamented, the earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a double heart-shaped projection (1525), and a topographical map of Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541, diam.
In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large.
Among other French works of importance deserving notice are Le Neptune oriental of Mannevillette (1745) and more especially the Carte geometrique de la France, which is based upon surveys carried on (1744-1783) by Cesar Francois Cassini de Thury and his son Dominique de Cassini.
Desbarres, Atlantic Neptune (1774), a North-American Pilot (1779), which first made known the naval surveys of J.
The geological surveys of Great Britain and Ireland were connected from 1832 to 1853 with the ordnance survey, but are now carried on independently.
The surveys for this map were begun in 1905.
By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 674 sheets on a scale of i:roo,000.
The map produced on this large scale numbers over 5000 sheets, and is used as a basis for the geological surveys carried on in several of the states of Germany.
The Specialkarte of Austria-Hungary on a scale of r:75,000 (765 sheets), based upon a triangulation and cadastral surveys (1816-1867), was completed in 1889, and published in heliogravure.
1875), is based upon a triangulation (1809-1833) and surveys on a scale of 1:25,000 for the lowlands, r :50,000 for the alpine districts, and was published (1842-1865) on a scale of r:roo,000.
The original surveys, carefully revised, have been published since 1870 as a Topographical Atlas of Switzerland - the so-called Siegfried Atlas, in 552 sheets.
Modern surveys in Sweden date from the organization of a corps of " Landematare," known since 1874 as a topographical department of the general staff.
Surveys in Asiatic Russia are conducted by the topographical departments organized at Orenburg, Tashkent, Omsk, Irkutsk and Tiflis.
In Italy Tavulette rilevata on a scale of 1: 25,000 or 1: 50,000, with contours, based on surveys made 1862-1890, are being.
Greece is still dependent upon foreigners for its maps, among which the Carte de Grece (1: 200,000) from rapid surveys made.
Far superior to these maps is the Karte von Attika (1: ioo,000 and 1:25,000) based upon careful surveys made by Prussian officers and published by E.
For maps of the Balkan Peninsula we are still largely indebted to the rapid surveys carried on by Austrian and Russian officers.
The Austrian map of central Europe embraces the whole of the Balkan Peninsula on a scale of 1:200,000; the Russian surveys (1877-1879) are embodied in a map of the eastern part of the Balkan on a scale 1: 126,000, and a map of Bulgaria and southern Rumelia, on a scale 1: 200,000, both published in 1883.
In Asiatic Turkey several districts of historical interest have been surveyed, and surveys have likewise been made in the interest of railways, or by boundary commis- Asia.
Among maps based upon actual surveys those of Palestine, by Lieutenant G.
Of Cyprus an excellent map from surveys by Major (Lord) H.
The settlement of boundaries in northern Afghanistan (1883) and in Seistan (1870) has necessitated surveys of some interest.
The surveys are made on scales varying according to the necessities of the case or the nature of the country, and they have been extended since 1862 beyond the boundaries of India proper.
Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of 1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360.
The surveys are made on the scales of 1: 4000, 1:31,680 and 1:63,360.
The hawk is aerial brother of the wave which he sails over and surveys, those his perfect air-inflated wings answering to the elemental unfledged pinions of the sea.
Meanwhile, the acquisition of Burma and the demarcation of boundaries had opened the way to the extension of geographical surveys in directions hitherto untraversed.
Far more difficult is his task where no surveys are available, and the map has to be compiled from a variety of sources.
A cadastral survey for purposes of taxation was already at work in Babylonia in the age of Sargon of Akkad, 3800 B.C. In the British Museum may be seen a series of clay tablets, circular in shape and dating back to 2300 or 2100 B.C., which contain surveys of lands.
History surveys a presentation of man's life in which the union of these two contradictions has already taken place.
He did much to advance stellar photography and its use in cataloguing the stars, and he was responsible for the geodetic surveys of Natal and Cape Colony, British Bechuanaland, German S.-W.
He visited the New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, New Caledonia and Solomon Islands, and made careful though rough surveys of the Louisiade Archipelago, islands north of New Britain and part of New Guinea.
Surveys were then undertaken in several directions.
But in the 19th century and after exploring work was so generally and steadily maintained in all directions, and was in so many cases narrowed down from long journeys to detailed surveys within relatively small areas, that i t becomes desirable to cover the whole period at one view for certain great divisions of the world.
In China he made extensive surveys which, however, were interrupted by the Boxer outbreak; and he, together with his wife, were among those besieged at Tientsin.
According to the charter the northern boundary was to be the line of 36° 30', but the surveys (of 1728, 1749 and 1779) were not strictly accurate, and the actual line runs irregularly from 3 6 ° 33' 15" at its eastern to 3 6 ° 34' 2 5.5" at its western end.
Ex Ploration The progress of geodetic surveys in Russia had long ago extended across the European half of the great empire, St Petersburg being connected with Tiflis on the southern slopes of the Caucasus by a direct system of triangulation carried out with the highest scientific precision.
But beyond the eastern shores of the Caspian no system of direct geodetic measurements by first-class triangulation has been possible, and the surveys of Asiatic Russia are separated from those of Europe by the width of that inland sea.
Exact surveys in Russia, based upon triangulation, extend as far east as Chinese Turkestan in longitude about 75° E.
In India geodetic triangulation furnishes exact sur- the basis for exact surveys as far east as the eastern veys in boundaries of Burma in longitude about loo E.
But while we have yet to wait for that expansion of principal triangulation which will bring Asia into connexion with Europe by the direct process of earth measurement, a topobetween graphical connexion has been effected between Russian Russ/an and Indian surveys which sufficiently proves that the and deductive methods employed by both countries for the Indian determination of the co-ordinate values of fixed points so surveys.