In the monastic period pharmacy was to a great extent under the control of the religious orders, particularly the Benedictines, who, from coming into contact with the Arabian physicians, devoted themselves to pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics; but, as monks were forbidden to shed blood, surgery fell largely into the hands of barbers, so that the class of barber-surgeons came into existence, and the sign of their skill in blood-letting still appears in provincial districts in England in the form of the barber's pole, representing the application of bandages.
In 1748 the Apothecaries' Corporation obtained a charter empowering them to license apothecaries to sell medicines in London, or within 7 m., and intended to use it to restrain chemists and druggists from practising pharmacy, and to prohibit physicians and surgeons from selling the medicines they prescribed; but the apothecaries, by paying increased attention to medical and surgical practice, had not only alienated the physicians and surgeons, but materially strengthened the position of chemists and druggists as dispensers of prescriptions.
Other educational institutions are the Indianapolis College of Law (1897), the Indiana Medical College (the School of Medicine of Purdue University, formed in 1905 by the consolidation of the Medical College of Indiana, the Central College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Fort Wayne College of Medicine), the State College of Physicians and Surgeons (the medical school of Indiana University), the Indiana Veterinary College (1892), the Indianapolis Normal School, the Indiana Kindergarten and Primary Normal Training School (private), and the Winona Technical Institute.
There may also be mentioned the Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields, with museum; the Royal Colleges of Organists, and of Veterinary Surgeons, the College of Preceptors, the Jews' College, and the Metropolitan School of Shorthand.
3 Perhaps this may be partially explained by the fact that the Museum of the College of Surgeons, in which these investigations were chiefly carried on, like most other museums of the time, contained a much larger series of the heads of birds than of their entire skeletons, or of any other portion of the skeleton.
His vanity made him order the surgeons to cut out a bone which protruded below the knee and spoilt the symmetry of his leg.
It encountered many difficulties, and until the definite proof of the stegomyia hypothesis of yellowfever inoculation made by the United States army surgeons in Cuba in 1900, the greatest problem seemed insoluble.
In the Hunterian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1863, Huxley divided the Vertebrata into Mammals, Sauroids and Ichthyoids, the latter division containing the Amphibia and Pisces.
The museum and lecture-rooms of the Royal College of Surgeons occupy a handsome classical building in Nicolson Street.
Surgeons, physicians, oculists, laryngologists, gynaecologists, neurologists and the rest, all are working in allotments of the same field, and combining to a common harvest.
The university is governed by a senate consisting of a chancellor, chairman of convocation and 54 members, whose appointment is shared by the Crown, convocation, the Royal Colleges of Physicians and of Surgeons, the Inns of Court, the Law Society, the London County Council, City Corporation, City and Guilds Institute, University and King's Colleges and the faculties.
The Royal College of Physicians is in Pall Mall East, and the Royal College of Surgeons is in Lincoln's Inn Fields.
The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons is in Red Lion Square, and the Royal Veterinary College at Camden Town.
Other museums are Sir John Soane's collection in Lincoln's Inn Fields and the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, while the scientific societies have libraries and in some cases collections of a specialized character, such as the museums of the Royal College of Surgeons, the Royal Architectural Society, and the Society of Art and the Parkes Museum of the Sanitar y Institute.
The Megatheriidae, which include a number of genera, are collectively Megatherium, from the specimen in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
The first complete skeleton of a gorilla sent to Europe was received at the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1851, and the first complete skin appears to have reached the British Museum in 1858.
He abounded in kindliness and generosity, and if there was anything especially difficult for him to endure, it was the sight of human suffering, as was shown on the night at Shiloh, where he lay out of doors in the icy rain rather than stay in a comfortable room where the surgeons were at work.
His son and grandson - respectively the great-grandfather and grandfather of James Martineau - were surgeons in the same city, while his father was a manufacturer and merchant.
Other institutions are Concordia College (1881, Lutheran), a state normal school (1880), the Wisconsin College of physicians and surgeons (1893), the national German-American teachers' seminary (normal), Milwaukee academy (1864), Milwaukee University school, Milwaukee school of engineering (1904), Milwaukee Turnverein school of physical culture, one of the largest schools of the sort in the United States, St John's Catholic institute, Our Lady of Mercy academy (Roman Catholic), Wisconsin academy of music, the Wisconsin school of art (art students' league), a Catholic normal school, St Rose's manual training school, the industrial chemical institute (the only technical school for brewers in the United States) and several business and commercial schools.
Previously a certain amount of regular instruction had no doubt been given here and there by individual physicians and surgeons; lectures to nurses were delivered in the New York Hospital as early as 1790.
The Juarists were defeated outside the city of Mexico twice, in October 1858 and on the nth of April 1859, On the second occasion the whole body of officers, who had surrendered, were shot with Miramon's authority, if not by his express orders, together with several surgeons (including one Englishman, Dr Duval) (the fifty-three " martyrs of Tacubaya ").
Educational foundations include the Royal College of Physicians, of Surgeons and of Science; the Royal Irish Academy, with an unequalled collection of national antiquities, including manuscripts and a library; and the Royal Hibernian Academy of painting, sculpture and architecture.
1 Ira Remsen was born in New York City on the 10th of February 1846, graduated at the college of the City of New York in 1865, studied at the New York college of physicians and surgeons and at the university of GÃ¶ttingen, was professor of chemistry at Williams College in 1872-1876, and in 1876 became professor of chemistry at Johns Hopkins University.
His legs grew weaker; his breath grew shorter; the fatal water gathered fast, in spite of incisions which he, courageous against pain but timid against death, urged his surgeons to make deeper and deeper.
The ablest physicians and surgeons attended him, and refused to accept fees from him.
The college of Surgeons was founded by the municipality of Edinburgh (1505), and in 1506 obtained the title of " Royal."
It has been used by some surgeons for the production of anaesthesia previous to the administration of ether or chloroform, but the use of the method is now more usually relegated to obstetric practice.
Other interesting buildings are the orphanage (1616), containing some 17th and 18th century portraits and ancient leather hangings; the weigh-house (1559), the upper story of which was once used by the Surgeons' Gild, several of the windowpanes (dating chiefly from about 1640), being decorated with the arms of various members; the former mint (r61 I); and the ancient assembly-house of the dike-reeves of Holland and West Friesland.
Fischer, Waldeyer and von Bergmann among scientists and surgeons; Mommsen, Treitschke and Sybel among historians, Harnack among theologians, Brunner among jurists.
In Minneapolis are the Minneapolis College of Physicians and Surgeons (1883), the medical school of Hamline University; Augsburg Seminary (Norwegian Lutheran, 1869), the United Church Seminary (1890), the Minnesota College (Swedish, 1905), the Minneapolis Normal School for Kindergartners, the Froebellian Kindergarten Normal School, Graham Hall and Stanley Hall, the Minneapolis School of Music, Oratory and Dramatic Art, and the Northwestern Conservatory of Music. Between Minneapolis and St Paul are the main buildings of Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal, co-educational, 1854).
He became lecturer in Anatomy both at his own hospital and at Charing Cross hospital; professor of Anatomy at University College, Sheffield; and Hunterian professor at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1901.
While still residing with his father at Lincoln's Inn Fields, he gained some knowledge of natural history and an interest in fossils from visits to the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, at a time when W.
He was also professor of anatomy, physiology and surgery to the College of Surgeons of London, and for many years teacher of anatomy in the school which used to exist in Great Windmill Street.
Among the professional schools are the university of Maryland and Baltimore University - each of which offers courses in law, medicine and dentistry - the Baltimore Medical College, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, the Woman's Medical College, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, the Maryland College of Pharmacy, the Baltimore Law School (affiliated with the Baltimore Medical College), St Joseph's Seminary and St Mary's Seminary, which, established by the Society of St Sulpice in 1791, is said to be the oldest Catholic theological seminary in the United States.
Some time after this an operation restored Euler's sight; but a too harsh use of the recovered faculty, along with some carelessness on the part of the surgeons, brought about a relapse.
He took his medical degree in the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons in Glasgow in November 1840.
London University, the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, and many other examining bodies refused to admit her to their examinations; but in the end the Society of Apothecaries, London, allowed her to enter for the License of Apothecaries' Hall, which she obtained in 1865.
In 1878, after filling other offices in the Royal College of Surgeons, he became its president, and in 1887 was created.