The earliest existing codification of the prayerbook is the Siddur (order) drawn up by Amram Gaon of Sura about 850.
Half a century later the famous Gaon Seadiah, also of Sura, issued his Siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic. Besides the Siddur, or order for Sabbaths and general use, there is the Mahzor (cycle) for festivals and fasts.
G Y Geonim, the heads of the schools of Sura and Pumbeditha in Babylonia.
Besides the Responsa, but closely related to them, we have the lesser Halakhoth of Yehudai Gaon of Sura (8th century) and the great Halakhoth of Simeon Qayyara of Sura (not Gaon) in the 9th century.
All these writers, however, are entirely eclipsed by the commanding personality of the most famous of the Geonim, Seadiah ben Joseph (q.v.) of Sura, often called al-Fayyumi (of the Fayum in Egypt), one of the greatest representatives of Jewish learning of all times, who died in 942.
A day's journey beyond this, on the Syrian side, stand the remains of ancient Sura, a frontier fortress of the Romans against the Parthians; 20 m.
Half a day's journey beyond Sura, on the Mesopotamian side of the river, are the extensive ruins of Haragla (Heraclea) and Rakka, once the capital of Harun al-Rashid (Nicephorium of Alexander; Callinicus of the Seleucids and Romans).
Occidental geographers, however, have followed the Greek use, and so to-day we call the river of Babylon or Nahr Sura the Euphrates and the older westerly channel the Hindieh canal.
The Narss, also, the modern Daghara, which is still navigable to Nippur and beyond, left the Sura a little below Hillah; and at the present day another large canal, the Kehr, branches off near Diwanieh.
The Hindieh canal and the main stream, the ancient Sura, rejoin one another at Samawa.
Dvina and the Donets, and thence, through the mouth of the Sura, by the Vetluga, to the Mezen.
On the east of the Euphrates, from Nehardea in the north to Sura in the south, became a new Palestine with Nehardea for its Jerusalem.
The great rabbinic academies at Sura and Nehardea, the former of which retained something of its dominant role till the rrth century, had been founded, Sura by Abba Arika (c. 219), but Nehardea, the more ancient seat of the two, famous in the 3rd century for its association with Abba Arika's renowned contemporary Samuel, lost its Jewish importance in the age of Mahomet.
Licinius Sura, a lifelong friend of Trajan, and on the 27th of October in the year 97 he ascended the Capitol and proclaimed that he adopted Trajan as his son.
Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Sura, one of the chief figures in the Catilinarian conspiracy.
It is still used in the service of the synagogue, and the Mahommedans not only add it after reciting the first Sura of the Koran, but also when writing letters, &c., and repeat it three times, of ten with the word Qimtir, as a kind of talisman.
'ABBA 'ARIKA, the name of the Babylonian amora of the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud.
They formerly occupied the basin of the Oka (where the town Meshchersk, now Meshchovsk, has maintained their name) and of the Sura, extending north-east to the Volga.
He himself undertook to murder Cicero and other prominent men, but was hampered by the dilatoriness of Sura, whose age and rank entitled him to the chief consideration.
He was condemned to death, and executed, with Sura and others, on the night of the 5th of December.
This is stated in the crudest form in Sura 1 i of the Majmu`: " I testify that there is no god but `Ali ibn abu Talib."
In Sura 6 of the Majmu` the Nosairi says: "I make for the Door, I prostrate myself before the Name, I worship the Idea."
For example, he seems to have occasionally dictated the same sura to different persons in slightly different terms. In such cases, no doubt, he may have partly intended to introduce improvements; and so long as the difference was merely in expression, without affecting the sense, it could occasion no perplexity to his followers.
One sura (i.) is a prayer, two (cxiii.
The words of this sura, which is known as al fatiha (" the opening one "), are as follows: (i) In the name of God, the compassionate compassioner.
Of the seven verses of the sura no less than five (verses 1, 2, 3, 4, 6) have an extremely suspicious relationship with the stereotyped formulae of Jewish and Christian liturgies.
If, for this reason, it is to a certain extent certain that Sura i.
Similarly it is by reason of its contents that sura i.
In accurate codices, indeed, all such additions, as well as the titles of the sura, &c., are written in coloured ink, while the black characters profess to represent exactly the original of Othman.
In 87 B.C. he was sent to Greece with a large army and fleet, and occupied the Peiraeus after three days' fighting with Bruttius Sura, prefect of Macedonia, who in the previous year had defeated Mithradates' fleet under Metrophanes and captured the island of Sciathus.
Marcus Antonius, commonly called Mark Antony, the Triumvir, grandson of Antonius the "orator" and son of Antonius Creticus, related on his mother's side to Julius Caesar, was born about 83 B.C. Under the influence of his stepfather, Cornelius Lentulus Sura, he spent a profligate youth.
For a time he co-operated with P. Clodius Pulcher, probably out of hostility to Cicero, who had caused Lentulus Sura to be put to death as a Catilinarian; the connexion was severed by a disagreement arising from his relations with Clodius's wife, Fulvia.
On the right the Volga is joined by the Sura, which drains a large area and brings a volume of 2700 to 22,000 cub.
In Palestine learning flourished at Caesarea, Sepphoris, Tiberias and Usha; Babyldnia had famous schools at Nehardea (from the 2nd century A.D.), Sura, Pumbeditha and elsewhere.
Abba Arika or Rab, the nephew of the first mentioned, founded the school of Sura (219 A.D.).
Rab Abina (died 499), heads of the academy of Sura, the Babylonian recension became practically complete.
With the Geonirn, the heads of Sura and Pumbeditha (about 589 - 1038), we enter upon another stage.
Some deputies from the Allobroges, who had been sent to Rome to obtain redress for certain grievances, were approached by P. Lentulus Sura, the chief of the conspirators, who endeavoured to induce them to join him.
Amongst the more important plateaus are the Assab or Kibyen country, having a general level of upwards of 4000 ft., and the Sura country, also reaching to elevations of from 3000 to 5000 ft.
The Gongola, flowing east and south to the Benue, rises in the Sura district, and from the Kibyen plateau streams flow north to Lake Chad, west to the Kaduna, and south to the Benue.
Bauchi is a province of special importance from the European point of view because, with free communication from the Benue assured, it is probable that on the Kibyen and Sura plateaus, which are the healthiest known in the protectorate, a sanatorium and station for a large civil population might be established under conditions in which Europeans could live free from the evil effects of a West African climate.