In May he refused to take the oath of supremacy, acquiring like his colleagues consistency with old age.
A second great event was the fourth crusade, undertaken in 1198, which established the naval and commercial supremacy of the Italians in the Mediterranean.
After this the Pisan supremacy of the island seems to have become more of a reality, but Arborea remained independent, and after the defeat of the Pisans by the Genoese at the naval battle of Meloria in 1284 they were obliged to surrender Sassari and Logudoro to Genoa.
It is probable that the island was not dorized before the 9th century B.C. One of the earliest facts known to us in its history is its membership in the League of Calauria, which included, besides Aegina, Athens, the Minyan (Boeotian) Orchomenos, Troezen, Hermione, Nauplia and Prasiae, and was probably an organization of states which were still Mycenaean, for the suppression of the piracy which had sprung up in the Aegean as a result of the decay of the naval supremacy of the Mycenaean princes.
After this, for thirty years, between 1352 and 1381, Venice and Genoa contested the supremacy of the Mediterranean.
During the Macedonian supremacy the town passed in turn from Cassander and Demetrius Poliorcetes to Antigonus Gonatas, and finally was incorporated in the Achaean League.
The ministers refused to take the Oath of Supremacy without the qualification suggested by Usher.
469) in North Germany; and in 1536 he wrote a preface to Gardiner's De vera Obedientia, which asserted the royal, denied the papal, supremacy, and was received with delight by the Lutherans.
Moreover, if a minority involved an abeyance of the royal supremacy in the ecclesiastical sphere, it must do the same in the temporal sphere, and there could be nothing but anarchy.
If he would not forthwith come and lead them,"they had told him," they would go their own way without him."The supremacy of the army without a guiding hand meant anarchy, that of the Presbyterians the outbreak of another civil war.
In December 1654 Penn and Venables sailed for the West Indies with orders to attack the Spanish colonies and the French shipping; and for the first time since the Plantagenets an English fleet appeared in the Mediterranean, where Blake upheld the supremacy of the English flag, made a treaty with the dey of Algiers, destroyed the castles and ships of the dey of Tunis at Porto Farina on the 4th of April 1655, and liberated the English prisoners captured by the pirates.
To Cromwell more than to any other British ruler belongs the credit of having laid the foundation of England's maritime supremacy and of her over-sea empire.
On the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 Grant was at first disposed to be hostile to the policy of Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain; but his eyes were soon opened to the real nature of President Kruger's government, and he enthusiastically welcomed and supported the national feeling which sent men from the outlying portions of the Empire to assist in upholding British supremacy in South Africa.
As the supremacy of Rome extended itself Roads, over Italy, the Roman road system grew step by step, each fresh conquest being marked by the pushing forward of roads through the heart of the newly-won territory, and the establishment of fortresses in connection with them.
The age of real autonomy, signalized by the supremacy of consuls in the cities, had arrived.
Persis never became a part of the empire of the Arsacids, although her kings recognized their supremacy when they were strong (Strabo xv.
This tendency was already shown by Catherine when she created the League of Neutrals as an arm against the naval supremacy of England, and by Paul when he insisted that his peace negotiations with Bonaparte should be regarded as part of a general European pacification, in which he must be consulted.
Transubstantiation (1676); The Obligation resulting from the Oath of Supremacy (1688); and Carti's Ormonde, iv.
Individual leaders in times of stress acquired a recognized supremacy, and, once a tribe outstripped the rest, the opportunities for continued advance gave further scope to their authority.
Both these kings were slain by .Ceadwalla in the following year, but shortly afterwards the Welsh king was overthrown by Oswald, brother of Eanfrith, who reunited the whole of Northumbria under his sway and acquired a supremacy analogous to that previously held by Edwin.
Much of Shaftesbury's career, increasingly so as it came near its close, is incapable of defence; but it has escaped most of his critics that his life up to the Restoration, apparently full of inconsistencies, was evidently guided by one leading principle, the determination to uphold the supremacy of parliament, a principle which, however obscured by self-interest, appears also to have underlain his whole political career.
He was content that ecclesiastical supremacy should be with the civil power, and he believed that the work of the Reformation would in that way be best preserved and furthered.
In 1188 William secured a papal bull which declared that the Church of Scotland was directly subject only to the see of Rome, thus rejecting the claims to supremacy put forward by the English archbishop. This step was followed by the temporal independence of Scotland, which was one result of the continual poverty of Richard I.
"A threefold cord is not quickly broken," and these three independent witnesses agree in describing a significant innovation which ends with the supremacy of the Zadokites of Jerusalem over their brethren.
8-1r, 36-40), while another shows the supremacy of the Levites as a caste either over the rest of the people (?
Henceforward ~ Italy changed masters according as one or other of the German families assumed supremacy beyond the Alps.
Their mutual jealousies, combined with the prestige of the empire, and possibly with the selfishness of the pope, who had secured his own position, and was not likely to foster a national spirit that would have threatened the ecclesiastical supremacy, deprived the Italians of the only great opportunity they ever had of forming themselves into a powerful nation.
The quarrels of the church and empire lend pretexts and furnish war-cries; but the real question at issue is not the supremacy of pope or emperor.
VIII.; the fall of Granada freed Spain from her embarrassments; Columbus discovered America, destroying the commercial supremacy of Venice; last, but not least, Roderigo Borgia assumed the tiara with the famous title of Alexander VI.
Now forced the Venetians to admit his ecclesiastical supremacy; but they refused to readmit the Jesuits, who had been expelled in 1606.
The breach with Rome and the subjection of the church in England to the royal supremacy had been practically achieved before Cranmer's appointment as archbishop: and he had little to do with the other constitutional changes of Henry's reign.