The superscription, if original, compels us to treat the whole writing as not only late but pseudonymous.
1 as superscription rather than part of the text.
These liturgical notes make extremely probable the supposition that the poem has been taken from some collection like that of our present book of Psalms, probably on the ground of the authorship asserted by the superscription there attached to it.
This is the more modern view, in contrast to the earlier theory most generally accepted, according to which he flourished about l00 B.C. The earlier theory started from the superscription of one of his works, Î—ÏÏ‰Î½Î¿Ï‚ ÎšÏ„Î·ÏƒÎ¹Î²Î¯Î¿Î½ Î²ÎµÎ»Î¿Ï€Î¿Î¹ÏŠÎºÎ¬, from which it was inferred that Hero was a pupil of Ctesibius.
Nor can the relation of master and pupil be certainly inferred from the superscription quoted (observe the omission of any article), which really asserts no more than that Hero re-edited an earlier treatise by Ctesibius, and implies nothing about his being an immediate predecessor.
The superscription shows points of connexion with the Rest of the Words of Baruch, but little weight can be attached to the fact, since titles and superscriptions were so frequently transformed and expanded in ancient times.
If the superscription be not from the hand of the actual brother of Jesus, the question may well be asked why some apostolic name was not chosen which might convey greater authority?
The superscription in the case of Jude, unlike that of James, takes hold of the substance of the book.
In 1844 Minas published a work, avowedly from a MS. with the superscription Galenus, entitled FaXrlvo13 Eiaa'yw yi, &aX€Krucii.
The superscription (Jas.
It is at least an open question whether the superscription (connected with that of Jude) be not a later conjecture prefixed by some compiler of the catholic epistles, but of the late date implied in our interpretation of ver.
Modern criticism naturally made the superscription its startingpoint, endeavouring first to explain the contents of the writing on this theory of authorship, but generally reaching the conclusion that the two do not agree.
As regards the superscription 1 Nothing adduced by Lightfoot (Comm.
95-120) implied by the literary contacts of James of course precludes authorship by the Lord's brother, though this does not necessarily prove the superscription later still.
The question whether the writing as a whole is pseudonymous, or only the superscription a mistaken conjecture by the scribe of Jude 1 is of secondary importance.
The prolonged effort, mainly of English scholarship, to vindicate the superscription, even on the condition of assuming priority to the Pauline epistles, grows only increasingly hopeless with increasing knowledge of conditions, linguistic and other, in that early period.
Yet even the gifts of these rivals to the cause of civilization often bear the image and superscription of Constantinople upon them.
1-17), is almost complete; note the superscription and the length of the flood (365 days; according to other notices the flood apparently lasted only 61 or 68 days).
The series of the Visigothic gold coins begins with him, and it is to be noted that while the earliest are struck in the name of the emperor Justinian, the imperial superscription disappears in the later.
He speaks of his poor circumstances, but from the superscription clarissimus and spectabilis in one MS., he seems to have held a high official position.
Sieffert, on account of the superscription, would date as early as 70-80, but acknowledges the hyper-Pauline affinity of the heresy, its propagation as a doctrine, and close relation to the Nicolaitan of Rev. ii.
In his will he desired to be buried without any state and without a monument, "but at the utmost a plain stone with this superscription only, Vermis sum, acknowledging myself to be unworthy of the least outward regard in this world and unworthy of any remembrance that hath been so great a sinner."
He is chiefly known for his commentary on Virgil, which has come down to us in two distinct forms. The first is a comparatively short commentary, definitely attributed to Servius in the superscription in the MSS.
When,onthe istof April 1902,a new stamp,withthe superscription Deutsches Reich, was issued for the Empire, including Wurttemberg, Bavaria refused to accept it, retaining the stamp with the Bavarian lion, thus emphasizing her determination to retain her separate postal establishment.
The individual suras are separated simply by the superscription: " In the name of God, the compassionate Compassioner," which is wanting only in the ninth.
Was for a long while largely struck with Alexander's 3 own image and superscription; the gold and silver coined in the names of Antigonid and Seleucid kings and by the minor principalities of Asia, kept to the Attic standard which Alexander had established.
Its most striking characteristic lies in the superscription ("A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet, set to Shigionoth"), the subscription ("For the chief musician, on my stringed instruments"), and the insertion of the musical term "Selah" in three places (v.
As with the epistle of James, the problems of the writing centre " upon the superscription, which addresses in Pauline phraseology (1 Thess.
But in that case we must either reject the testimony of the same Hegesippus that up to their death, and that of Symeon son of Clopas, successor in the Jerusalem see of James the Lord's brother, " who suffered martyrdom at the age of one hundred and twenty years while Trajan was emperor and Atticus governor," " the church (universal) had remained a pure and uncorrupted virgin " free from " the folly of heretical teachers "; or else we must reject the superscription, which presents the grandfather in vehement conflict with the very heresies in question.