Particulars of calls are now passed between trunk centres to a great extent over telegraph circuits superposed upon the trunk lines.
Its inner surface is furnished with ridges beset with series of minute, bristle-like, erect, horny teeth, each of which, when strongly magnified, is seen to be formed of a column of superposed cones, hollowed out at the base and capping each other; the summit or crown of each of these cones is expanded, spatulate, hooked backwards, and often multicuspid.
Settlements belonging to the Stone age, and manufactories of stone implements, burial-grounds of the Bronze epoch, earthen forts and burial-mounds (kurgans) - of this last four different types are known, the earliest belonging to the Bronze period - are superposed, rendering the task of unravelling their several relations one of great difficulty.
These free poles produce a magnetic field which is superposed upon that arising from other sources.
The wire is subject to two superposed magnetizations, the one longitudinal, the other circular, due to the current traversing the wire; the resultant magnetization is consequently in the direction of a screw or spiral round the wire, which will be right-handed or left-handed according as the relation between the two magnetizations is right-handed or left-handed; the magnetic expansion or contraction of the metal along the spiral lines of magnetization produces the Wiedemann twist.
Ordinarily a substance composed of asymmetrical molecules is paramagnetic, but if the elementary magnets are so conditioned by their strength and concentration that mutual action between them is possible, then the substance is ferromagnetic. In all cases however it is the diamagnetic condition that is initially set up - even iron is diamagnetic - though the diamagnetism may be completely masked by the superposed paramagnetic or ferromagnetic condition.
But when an algebra is used with a particular interpretation, or even in the course of its formal development, it frequently happens that new symbols of operation are, so to speak, superposed upon the algebra, and are found to obey certain formal laws of combination of their own.
He described also the complicated patterns seen when a point of light is viewed through two superposed gratings, whose lines cross one another perpendicularly or obliquely.
Suppose two similar and accurately ruled transparent gratings to be superposed in such a manner that the lines are parallel.
The only assumption here involved is the evidently legitimate one that, when two systems of variously distributed motion at the lamina are superposed, the corresponding motions in front are superposed also.
This was first suggested by Thomas Young, who showed that the rays producing the bows consisted of two systems, which, although emerging in parallel directions, traversed different paths in the drop. Destructive interference between these superposed rays will therefore occur, and, instead of a continuous maximum illumination in the direction of minimum deviation, we should expect to find alternations of brightness and darkness.
The furnace used by Henri Moissan in his experiments on reactions at high temperatures, on the fusion and volatilization of refractory materials, and on the formation of carbides, suicides and borides of various metals, consisted, in its simplest form, of two superposed blocks of lime or of limestone with a central cavity cut in the lower block, and with a corresponding but much shallower inverted cavity in the upper block, which thus formed the lid of the furnace.
We shall then show that on certain limitations two trains of disturbance may be superposed so that stationary waves may be formed, and thence we shall deduce the modes of vibration as with pipes.
Some of the Italian terremare show quadrangular constructions made like the modern log houses, of undressed tree trunks superposed longitudinally and overlapping at the ends, as at Castione in the province of Parma.
We shall make the natural supposition that motion of the aether, say with velocity (u,v,w) at the point (x,y,z), is simply superposed on the velocity V of the optical undulations through that medium, the latter not being intrinsically altered.
The valleys by which the uplands are here and there trenched to moderate depth appear to be, in part at least, the work of streams that have been superposed upon the perieplain through the now removed cover of stratified rocks.
The Columbia river has entrenched itself in a canyon-like valley around the northern and Western side of the lava plains; Snake river has cut a deeper canyon farther south-east where the plains are higher and has disclosed the many lava sheets which build up the plains, occasionally revealing a buried mountain in which the superposed river has cut an even narrower canyon.
By setting the camera slit so as to admit to the photographic plate the light of the denser calcium vapour, which lies at low levels, or that of the rarer vapour at high levels, the phenomena of various superposed regions of the atmosphere can be recorded.
Miyoshi then demonstrated that if Botrytis is sown in a lamella of gelatine, and this lamella is superposed on another similar one to which a chemotropic substance is added, the tips of the hyphae at once turn from the former and enter the latter.
54) from a coffin is here superposed on the view of the actual skull to show the accuracy of the work.
There slowly successive phases of increased and of diminished tonus regularly alternate, and upon them are superposed the rhythmic "beats" of the pulsating heart.
Originally the absorption of the Deacon chlorine took place in a set of chambers, constructed of large slabs of stone, containing a great many horizontal shelves superposed over one another.
This is a tall iron erection, built up from superposed cylinders, which are separated from one another by perforated horizontal diaphragms, con this recovery is carried out in the most efficient manner, the process cannot possibly pay; but so much progress has been made in this direction that the loss of ammonia is very slight indeed, merely a fraction per cent.
Both these reactions are carried out in tall cylindrical columns or " stills," consisting of a number of superposed cylinders, having perforated horizontal partitions, and provided with a steam-heating arrangement in the enlarged bottom portion.
It seems difficult to account for the very remarkable and unsymmetrical distribution of the motions, unless we suppose that the stars form two more or less separate systems superposed; and it has been found possible by assuming two drifts with suitably assigned velocities to account very satisfactorily for the observed motions.
The motion of G then consists of two superposed circular vibrations of the type x=a cos (ai+s), ya sin (at+~), (36)
Further, on examining the small variation in i/i, it appears that in a slightly disturbed slow precession the motion of any point of the axis consists of a rapid circular vibration superposed on the steady precession, so that the resultant path has a trochoidal character.
In a slightly disturbed rapid precession the superposed vibration is elliptic-harmonic, with a period equal to that of the precession itself.
Since 8, o, are the polar co-ordinates (in a horizontal plane) of a point on the axis of symmetry, relative to an initial line which revolves with constant angular velocity P/2A, we see by comparison with 14 (i5) (16) that the motion of such a point will be elliptic-harmonic superposed on a uniform rotation e/2A, provided v2 >4AMgh.
Free vibrations must of course be superposed on the forced vibrations given by (29) in order to obtain the complete solution of the dynamical equations.
Vibrations of this kind are observed whenever liquid issues from an elliptical or other non-circular hole, or even when it is poured from the lip of an ordinary jug; and they are superposed upon the general progressive motion.
It is an ancestral larval form, corresponding perhaps to the stages immediately succeeding the trochophore in the development of Annelids, but with some of the later-acquired Crustacean characters superposed upon it.
This model, which was shown at the exhibition of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain at the Crystal Palace in 1868, consisted of two superposed screws propelled by an engine, the steam for which was generated (for lightness) in an aluminium boiler.
Sists of two superposed elastic screws (a a, b b), the upper of which (a a) is fixed in a vertical frame (c), which is pivoted in the central part (d) of the under screw.
It is now usually performed by a series of muffles, superposed one over another, so that the whole forms a kind of shelfburner, with internally heated shelves (the" Rhenania "furnace).
But these were only provisionary and desperate expedients, superposed upon the old routine, a further charge in addition to those already existing; and this entirely mechanical system, destructive of private initiative and the very sources of public life, worked with difficulty even in time of peace.
This consists of two plates of an uniaxal crystal of equal thickness, cut at the same inclination of about 45° to the optic axis and superposed with their principal planes at right angles.
Normally, the parts of successive whorls alternate; but in some cases we find the parts of one whorl opposite or superposed to those of the next whorl.
As a rule, whenever we find the parts of one whorl superposed on those of another we may suspect some abnormality.
There are considerable remains of perhaps pre-Roman polygonal walls - in one place a piece of this walling has masonry of rectangular blocks superposed, with an inscription of two of the Roman municipal magistrates (quattuorviri).