Pipe superheated steam at 330° F.
From the boiler house are supplied with superheated steam at a pressure of 35 /b to the in.
For example, in the Gritti and Orlando processes the ore is charged into retorts and the fusion effected by superheated steam, the sulphur being run off as usual; or as was suggested by R.
The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.
The steam is superheated and may thus be heated to any desired temperature without increase of pressure, which would be liable to damage the still.
The corresponding decomposition of a glyceride into an acid and glycerin takes place when the glyceride is distilled in superheated steam, or by boiling in water mixed with a suitable proportion of caustic potash or soda.
The cheaper mottled and brown soaps have for their basis bone fat, obtained by treating bones with superheated steam or other methods.
Direct firing is used for the second boiling of the soap mixture; but for this superheated steam may with advantage be substituted, either applied by a steam-jacket round the pan or by a closed coil of pipe within it.
Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.
The sulphur is dissolved by superheated water forced down pipes, and the water with sulphur in solution is forced upward by hot air pressure through other pipes; the sulphur comes, 99% pure, to the surface of the ground, where it is cooled in immense bins, and then broken up and loaded directly upon cars for shipment.
For a few moments, on its way to a steam and juice separator, where the steam due to the superheated juice flashes off, and is either utilized for aiding the steam supplied to the multiple effect evaporators, or for heating cold juice on its way to the main heater, or it is allowed to escape into the atmosphere.
- In this process a current of steam, which is generated in a separate boiler and superheated, if necessary, by circulation through a heated copper worm, is led into the distilling vessel, and the mixed vapours condensed as in the ordinary processes.
The monoxide or strontia, Sr(); is formed by strongly heating the nitrate, or commercially by heating the sulphide or carbonate in superheated steam (at about 500-600° C.).
It is a white solid, which combines with gaseous ammonia to form SrC1 2.8NH 3, and when heated in superheated steam it decomposes with evolution of hydrochloric acid.
The residue is then heated in a current of superheated steam, in which the boric acid volatilizes and distils over.
Fischer (Ber., 1880, 13, p. 2204) as follows: Nitrous acid converts pararosaniline into aurin, which when superheated with water yields para-dioxybenzophenone.
Charged with oxygen, and superheated, in an open-hearth furnace.
The specific heat of steam was determined shortly afterwards by Regnault (Comptes Rendus, 36, p. 676) by condensing superheated steam at two different temperatures (about 125° and 225° C.) successively in the same calorimeter at atmospheric pressure, and taking the difference of the total heats observed.
This sulphide is then heated in a current of moist carbon dioxide, barium carbonate being formed, BaS+H 2 O+CO 2 =BaCO 3 +H 2 S, and finally the carbonate is decomposed by a current of superheated steam, BaC03+H20 = Ba(OH) 2 + C02, leavingaresidue of the hydroxide.
He suggested that the high value for S found by Regnault might be due to the presence of damp in his superheated steam, or, on the other hand, that the assumption that steam at low temperatures followed the law pv = R0 might be erroneous.
10, P. 349, 1867) investigated the form of the adiabatic for steam passing through the state p= 760 mm., 0=373° Abs., by observing the pressure of superheated steam at any temperature which just failed to produce a cloud on sudden expansion to atmospheric pressure.
The specific volumes of superheated vapours may, however, (19) be measured with a satisfactory degree of approximation.
It is found by these methods that the behaviour of superheated vapours closely resembles that of noncondensible gases, and it is a fair inference that similar behaviour would be observed up to the saturation-point if surface condensation could be avoided.