His second wife had died during this year; in 1656 he married a third, who survived him, Margaret, daughter of Lord Spencer, niece of the earl of Southampton, and sister of the earl of Sunderland, who died at Newbury.
ROBERT SPENCER SUNDERLAND, 2ND Earl Of (1640-1702), English politician, was the only son of Henry Spencer (1620-1643), who succeeded his father, William, as 3rd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton in 1636.
Sir Robert's grandson, Henry, the 3rd baron, was created earl of Sunderland in June 1643, and was killed at the battle of Newbury when fighting for the king a little later in the same year.
Having passed some time in the court circle, Sunderland was successively ambassador at Madrid, at Paris and at Cologne; in 1678 he was again ambassador at Paris.
Early in 1683, however, through the influence of the king's mistress, the duchess of Portsmouth, Sunderland regained his place as secretary for the northern department, the chief feature of his term of office being his rivalry with his brotherin-law, George Savile, marquess of Halifax.
It should be mentioned that while Sunderland was thus serving James II., he was receiving a pension from France, and through his wife's lover, Henry Sidney, afterwards earl of Romney, he was furnishing William of Orange with particulars about affairs in England.
The best account of Sunderland is the article by T.
Antliff, Thomas Bateman and Henry Hodge) finds Primitive Methodism as a connexion of federated districts, a unity which may be described as mechanical rather than organic. The districts between 1853 and 1873 were ten in number, Tunstall, Nottingham, Hull, Sunderland, Norwich, Manchester, Brinkworth, Leeds, Bristol and London.
Thus Hull district inaugurated a bold policy of chapel-buildings; Norwich that of a foreign mission; Sunderland and Manchester the ideal of a bettereducated ministry, Sunderland institute being opened in 1868; Nottingham district founded a middle-class school; Leeds promoted a union of Sunday-schools, and the placing of chapel property on a better financial footing.
It is served by the Boston & Maine and the Central Vermont railways, and by interurban electric railways to Northampton, Holyoke, Sunderland and Pelham.
Some of the earlier sinkings of this kind, when pumps had to be depended on for keeping down the water, were conducted at great cost, as, for instance, at South Hetton, and more recently Ryhope, near Sunderland, through the magnesian limestone of Durham.
In 1907 he became recorder of Sunderland and in 191() a K.C. In 1910 he entered the House of Commons as Liberal member for Newcastle.
At Sunderland, the bridge is first lifted by a hydraulic press so as to clear the roadway behind, and is then rolled back.
The main road from Durham to Sunderland here passes through a remarkable cutting in the limestone 80 ft.
He surprised the world, which had supposed him to be a recluse and a mystic, by the practical interest he took in the mining population of Durham and in the great shipping and artisan industries of Sunderland and Gateshead.
But a more serious volume was Time and Tide (1867), a series of twenty-five letters to a workman of Sunderland, upon various points in the Ruskinian Utopia.
Next year she supported the election of the Whig speaker, John Smith, but long resisted the influence and claims of the Junto, as the Whig leaders, Somers, Halifax, Orford, Wharton and Sunderland, were named.
But she opposed for some time the inclusion in the government of Sunderland, whom she especially disliked, only consenting at Marlborough's intercession in December 1706, when various other offices and rewards were bestowed upon Whigs, and Nottingham with other Tories was removed from the council.
Places near London were earliest affected, as Brentford, Greenwich, Deptford; but in July or August 1665 it was already in Southampton, Sunderland, Newcastle, &c. A wider distribution occurred in the next year.
- Sunderland Southern Breakwater.
Of Sunderland by a branch of the North-Eastern railway.
The government at home was carried on principally by Rochester, Sunderland and Godolphin, while Guilford was lord chancellor and Jeffreys lord chief justice.
The principal ports for the shipping of coal for export, set down in order of the amount shipped, also fall very nearly into topographical groups, thus: - Newcastle, South Shields and Blyth in the Northern District; Newport in Monmouthshire; Sunderland in the Northern District, Hull, Grimsby and Goole on the Humber, which forms the eastern outlet of the Yorkshire coal-fields; Hartlepool, in the Northern District, and Liverpool.
The coastwise carrying trade is also important, the bulk being shared about equally by Sunderland, Newcastle, South Shields and Cardiff, while Liverpool has also a large share.
CHARLES SPENCER SUNDERLAND, 3RD Earl Of (c. 1674-1722), English statesman, was the second son of the 2nd earl, but on the death of his elder brother Henry in Paris in September 1688 he became heir to the peerage.
This was an important alliance for Sunderland and for his descendants; through it he was introduced to political life and later the dukedom of Marlborough came to the Spencers.
Sunderland continued to take part in public life, and was active in communicating with the court of Hanover about the steps to be taken in view of the approaching death of the queen.
Sunderland was especially interested in the proposed peerage bill, a measure designed to limit the number of members of the House of Lords, but this was defeated owing partly to the opposition of Sir Robert Walpole.
Sunderland inherited his father's passion for intrigue, while his manners were repelling, but he stands high among his associates for disinterestedness and had an alert and discerning mind.
For the career of Sunderland see W.
The scheme on which William hit, by the advice of the earl of Sunderland, was that which has since been known as cabinet government.
" I may confidently affirm," wrote John Fell, the dean of Christ Church, to Lord Sunderland, " there is not any one in the college who has heard him speak a word against, or so much as censuring, the government; and, although very frequently, both in public and private, discourses have been purposely introduced to the disparagement of his master, the earl of Shaftesbury, he could never be provoked to take any notice, or discover in word or look the least concern; so that I believe there is not in the world such a master of taciturnity and passion."
Being the husband of the duke of Yorks daughter, he had an understanding in this country with Sunderland, Godolphin and Templea party whose success was retarded for several years by the intrigues of Shaftesbury.
The greater part of the art treasures and curios were sold in 1886, and the great library collected by Charles Spencer, earl of Sunderland, the son-in-law of the first duke of Marlborough, in 1881.