King, History of Sumer and Akkad (1910), which appeared after this article was written.
Opposed to Kengi and Sumer were Urra (Uri) and Akkad or northern Babylonia.
Sumer has been supposed to be the original of the Biblical Shinar; but Shinar represented northern rather than southern Babylonia, and was probably the Sankhar of the Tell el-Amarna tablets (but see Sumer).
The early Kaldi had seized and held from very ancient times the region of old Sumer, which was the centre of the primitive non-Semitic culture.
King, A History of Sumer and Akkad (1910).
In the Assyro-Babylonian literature the name Akkadu appears as part of the royal title in connexion with Sumer; viz.
SUMER and Sumerian.
It is natural that under the Sumerian revival, which characterized the united kingdom of Sumer and Akkad, the ancient ritual should have been revived and the Sumerian servicebooks adapted for the use of the reigning monarch.
(1892), pp. 111 ff.; Prince, Commentary on D aniel (1899), pp. 5961; see also BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA and SUMER AND SUMERIAN.
NonSemitic: lugal Kengi (ki) Uru (ki) = sar mat Sumeri u Akkadi, " king of Sumer and Akkad," which appears to have meant simply "king of Babylonia."
A more comprehensive name of southern Babylonia was Kengi, "the land," or Kengi Sumer, " the land of Sumer," for which Sumer alone came afterwards to be used.
For 7 years Tukulti-In-aristi ruled at Babylon with the old imperial title of " king of Sumer and Akkad."
Khammurabi and the sun-god Shamash, on the former's famous code of laws, have the same features and almost the same frizzled beard, and, according to Meyer, the king in claiming supremacy over Sumer and Akkad wears the costume of the lands.
The rise of Sargon's empire was doubtless the cause of this extension of the name of Akkad; from henceforward, in the imperial title, Sumer and Akkad " denoted the whole of Babylonia.
E-anna-du, the grandson of Ur-Nina, made himself master of the whole of southern Babylonia, including " the district of Sumer " together with the cities of Erech, Ur and Larsa (?).