It was occupied by the Egyptian sultans until 1517, when the Turks under Selim I.
From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.
There are also several Albanian settlements in European Turkey and Asia Minor, some founded by military colonists who received grants of land from successive sultans, others owing their origin to enforced migrations after insurrections in Albania.
Notwithstanding the abandonment of Christianity by a large section of the population after the Turkish conquest, the authority of the sultans was never effectively established, and succeeding centuries present a record of interminable conflicts between the tribesmen and the Turks, between the Christians and the converts to Islam, or between all combined and the traditional Montenegrin enemy.
We learn from Oriental writers that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the 10th century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen, and have been visited, amongst others, by James Morier and E.
The Zeirids had before that date lost Algiers, which in 1159 was occupied by the Almohades, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Abd-elWahid, sultans of Tlemcen.
" Century IX.") Since these transactions patriarchs have been deposed by the Byzantine emperors; and the Turkish sultans since the 15th century have assumed to exercise the same prerogative.
By the same; Histoire des Sultans du Kharezm, in Persian, by Defremery (Paris, 1842); History of the Atabeks of Syria and Persia, in Persian, by W.
Morley (London, 1848); Historia Ghuridarum, Persian and Latin, by Mitscherlik (Frankfort, 1818); Histoire des Sultans Ghurides, trans.
References to Palmyra in later times have been collected by Quatremere, Sultans Mamlouks, ii.
Under the rule of their sultans, who assumed the role of mayors of the palace in Bagdad about the middle of the 11th century, they pushed westwards towards the caliphate of Egypt and the East Roman empire.
The Seljukian sultans had only achieved a military occupation of the country which they had conquered.
Thus, although Alexius had been able, in the wake of the crusading armies, to recover a large belt of land round the whole coast of Asia Minor, - the interior remaining subject to the sultans of Konia (Iconium) and the princes of Sivas, - he left the territories to the east of the western boundary of Cilicia in the hands of the Latins when he died in 1118.
The Shiite caliphs of Egypt were by this time the playthings of contending viziers, as the Sunnite caliphs of Bagdad had long been the puppets of Turkish sultans or amirs; and in 1164 Amalric I.
The sultans of Egypt were stirred to fresh activity by the attacks of the Mongols; and as Syria became the battleground of the two, the Latin principalities of Syria were fated to fall as the prize of victory to one or other of the combatants.
Round each lecturer in 22, Sultans private entrance.
Between 1883 and 1887 treaties with Somali sultans gave France possession of the whole of the Gulf of Tajura.
Bosnia was regarded by successive sultans as the Turkish gateway into Hungary; hatred of the Hungarians and their religion was hereditary among the Bogomils.
In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.
Expenditure, as under the Seljuk sultans, was defrayed partly in cash, partly in " assignations " (havale).
Then came forced loans and debased currency (1788), producing still more acute distress until, in 1791, at the close of the two years' war with Russia, in which the disaster which attended Ottoman arms may be largely ascribed to the penury of the Ottoman treasury, Selim III., the first of the " reforming sultans, " attempted, with but little practical success, to introduce radical reforms into the administrative organization of his empire.
These endeavours were continued with scarcely better result by each of the succeeding sultans up to the time of the Crimean War, and during the whole of the period the financial embarrassment of the empire was extreme.
Though Yahsha Bey, grandson of Mahommed Karaman Oghlu, had declared himself the successor of the Seljukian sultans, the princes of Aidin, Sarukhan, Menteshe, Kermian, Hamid, Tekke and Karassi declined to recognize his authority, and considered themselves independent, each in his own dominions.
In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.
After the conquest of the imperial city the sultans began to adopt the pomp and splendour of eastern sovereigns, and largely copied the system, ready to hand, of the Byzantine emperors.
Towards the middle of Suleiman's reign even this practice was abandoned, and the sultans henceforth attended the divans only on the distribution of pay to the troops or the reception of a foreign ambassador, which occasions were usually made to coincide.
It was one of the chief towns of the kingdom of Trebizond and of the Seljuks, one of whose sultans, Kaikobad I., enriched it with fine buildings and restored the castle, which was thus enabled to stand a seven months' siege by Timur.
It was also much favoured by the early Osmanli sultans, one of whom, Selim I., was born there.
George Rakoczy II., who succeeded his father in 1648, the Turkish empire, misruled by a series of incompetent sultans and distracted by internal dissensions, was unable to intervene in Hungarian politics.
The town was founded at the close of the 15th century and named after Ghazi Khan, son of Haji Khan, a Baluch chieftain, who after holding the country for the Langah sultans of Multan had made himself independent.
Linguet, advocate of Neros, sultans and viziers."
The Ayyubites were followed by the Mameluke dynasties, usually classified as Bal~ri from 1252-1382, and Burji from 1382-1517; these sovereigns were nominally under the suzerainty of Abbasid caliphs, who were in reality instruments of the Mameluke sultans, and resided at Cairo.
Under the prosperous rule of the Mameluke sultans this great tract was filled with habitations; a large suburb to the north, the Hoseynia, was added; and the town of Bulak was founded.
Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul Mejid and Abdul Aziz.
After the division of the empire, Lemnos passed under the Byzantine emperors; it shared in the vicissitudes of the eastern provinces, being alternately in the power of Greeks, Italians and Turks, till finally the Turkish sultans became supreme in the Aegean.
Since Mesopotamia finally came into the power of the Ottoman sultans considerable changes in the population have occurred.
Owing to the timely submission of the monks to the Turks after the capture of Salonica (1430), their privileges were respected by successive sultans: a tribute is paid to the Turkish government, which is represented by a resident kaimakam, and the community is allowed to maintain a small police force.
The petty sultans who exercised authority were notorious slave traders.
In 1886 the sultans of the other three islands were placed under French protection, France fearing that otherwise the islands would be taken by Germany.
But Izz ed-din, intriguing with the Mameluke sultans of Egypt to expel his brother and gain his independence, was defeated by a Mongol army and obliged to flee to the imperial court.
The court dignitaries and their titles were manifold; not less manifold were the royal prerogatives, in which the sultans followed the example set by their predecessors, the Buyids.
Of earlier buildings, the most distinguished are the Eski Serai, an ancient and half-ruined palace of the sultans; the bazaar of Ali Pasha; and the 16th-century mosque of the sultan Selim II., a magnificent specimen of Turkish architecture.