In the southern part of the colony are small sultanates, such as those of Aussa and Raheita, which are under Italian protection.
When the great Mahommedan sultanates had become too much occupied in internecine wars to maintain order in the distant Hejaz, those branches of the Hassanids which from the beginning of Islam had retained rural property in Arabia usurped power in the holy cities and the adjacent Bedouin territories.
The third or central group of Sudanese states is formed of the sultanates of Bagirmi with Kanem and Wadai.
The Federated Malay States under British protection consist of the sultanates of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sambilan on the west coast, and the sultanate of Pahang on the east coast.
The state was greatly harassed by Galla invaders in the 17th century, and broke up into a number of petty independent emirates and sultanates under Somali chiefs.
In Adamawa and German Bornu are various Mahommedan sultanates controlled by residents stationed at Garua and Kusseri.
In his reign (1463) there began the struggle between the Egyptian and the Ottoman sultanates which finally led to the incorporation of Egypt in the Ottoman empire.