Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
The Federated Malay States under British protection consist of the sultanates of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sambilan on the west coast, and the sultanate of Pahang on the east coast.
Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own, Oran being the chief seaport of the Abd-elWahid.
Eager to win the first spoils, the German crusaders, who were in advance of the French, attempted a raid into the sultanate of Iconium; but after a stern fight at Dorylaeum they were forced to retreat (October 11 4 7), and for the most part perished by the way.
- An Arab sultanate, with its capital at Zaila (Zeyla), was founded by Koreishite immigrants from the Yemen in, it is said, the 7th century A.D.
In 1248 Tlemcen was captured The by Abu Yahia Yarmorasen (Ghamarasan) who was Sultanate of chief of the Zenata tribe of Berbers and claimed Tlemcen.
In 1553 the Turks under Salah Rais, pasha of Algiers, captured Tlemcen and the Sultanate of Tagrart, as it was still frequently called, came to an end.
Zanzibar at this time was in semidependence on India, and British influence was strong at the court of Bargash, who succeeded to the sultanate in 1870.
He died in 1504 and his direct descendants held the sultanate of Berar until 1561, when Burhan Imad Shah was deposed by his minister Tufal Khan, who assumed the kingship. This gave a pretext for the intervention of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar, who in 1572 invaded Berar, imprisoned and put to death Tufal Khan, his son Shams-ul-Mulk, and the ex-king Burhan, and annexed Berar to his own dominions.
The sultanate is included in the residency of Ternate (q.v.).
After a ' This western beylik corresponded roughly with the former sultanate of Tlemcen.
MARRAKESH (erroneously MoRocco or Marocco City), one of the quasi-capitals of the sultanate of Morocco, Fez and Mequinez being the other two.
For a long period it was included in the sultanate of Tlemcen, and in the 16th century fell to the Turks.
Between the mainland dependency of the RiouwLingga residency and the residency of Palembang lies Jambi, an extensive sultanate, of which a portion belongs to the residency of Palembang as a protectorate, the sultan having in his capital (also called Jambi) a Dutch " comptroller," who represents the resident of Palembang; another portion is claimed by a quasi-independent sultan who reigns in the interior.
Edi on the north-east coast, with another harbour, is capital of a sultanate which formerly owed allegiance to the sultan of Achin, but has formed a political division of the government of Achin since 1889, when an armed expedition restored order.
All along the main coasts of the former sultanate of Achin military posts have been established and military roads constructed; even in Pedir, on the north coast, until 1899 the most actively turbulent centre of resistance of the sultan's party, and still later only pacified in parts, Dutch engineers were able to build a highway to connect the west with the east coast, and other works have been successfully carried out.
Farther north, beyond the Mandara mountains, the country, here part of the ancient sultanate of Bornu, slopes to the shores of Lake Chad, and has a general level of Boo to 1000 ft.
Of the four peninsulas of Halmahera the northern and the southern are reckoned to the sultanate of Ternate, the north-eastern and south-eastern to that of Tidore; the former having eleven, the latter three districts.
The theologians tried to uphold the orthodox theory by declaring the sultanate to be subordinate to the imamate or sovereignty of the caliphs, and dependent on the latter especially in all religious matters; but their artificial theories have never modified facts.
The Oman sultanate is predominately Ibadhi.
But after the death of Malik-Shah a contest for the sultanate took place.
Politically Borneo is divided into four portions: (1) British North Borneo, the territory exploited and administered by the Chartered British North Borneo Company, to which a separate section of this article is devoted; (2) Brunei, a Malayan sultanate under British protection; (3) Sarawak, the large territory ruled by raja Brooke, and under British protection in so far as its foreign relations are concerned; and (4) Dutch Borneo, which comprises the remainder and by far the largest and most valuable portion of the island.
The district of Banjermasin was incorporated by the Dutch in consequence of the war of 1860, in regard to the succession in the sultanate, which had been under their protection since 1787.
During the critical period in which their empire was being established (c. 1505-1550) the Portuguese were fortunate in escaping conflict with any Oriental power of the first rank except Egypt and Turkey; for the Bahmani sultanate of the Deccan had been already disintegrated before 1498, and the Mughals and Mahrattas were still far off.
By the wise action of Si Ahmad bin Musa, the chamberlain of El Hasan, Abd-elAziz's accession to the sultanate was ensured with but little fighting.
What remains of this once powerful sultanate is a triangular-shaped territory, the base of the triangle being represented by 80 m.
The history of this ancient and decaying sultanate is of some interest.
From 1350 onwards the Crusade assumes a new aspect; it becomes defensive, and it is directed against the Ottoman Turks, a tribe of Turcomans who had established themselves in the sultanate of Iconium at the end of the 13th century, during the confusion and displacement of peoples which attended the Mongol invasions.
During the insurrection of 1864 the Dungans and the Taranchis formed here the Taranchi sultanate, and this led to the occupation of Kulja by the Russians in 1871.
It is the best-built port of the sultanate and is generally second in point of trade, which is carried on mainly with Marseilles, London, Gibraltar and the Canaries, the principal exports being almonds, goat-skins, gums and olive-oil, and the principal imports cotton goods, sugar and tea.