They are precipitated from their alkaline solutions as cobalt sulphide by sulphuretted hydrogen, but this precipitation is prevented by the presence of citric and tartaric acids; similarly the presence of ammonium salts hinders their precipitation by caustic alkalis.
Potassium sulphide dissolved in 3 gallons of water.
Iridium sulphide, IrS, is obtained when the metal is ignited in sulphur vapour.
The whole of the lead and sulphur of the sulphide was found to be present in the sulphate; in other words, the combining ratio of the lead and sulphur was not altered by the addition of the oxygen.
Cobalt chloride, CoC1 2, in the anhydrous state, is formed by burning the metal in chlorine or by heating the sulphide in a current of the same gas.
The most common of these sulphides is cobaltous sulphide, CoS, which occurs naturally as syepoorite, and can be artificially prepared by heating cobaltous oxide with sulphur, or by fusing anhydrous cobalt sulphate with barium sulphide and common salt.
Cobalt salts may be readily detected by the formation of the black sulphide, in alkaline solution, and by the blue colour they produce when fused with borax.
After studying at Marburg under Hermann Kolbe and at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen, he came to England in 1862 and obtained a position in a chemical works at Widnes, where he elaborated the practical application of a method he had devised for recovering the sulphur lost as calcium sulphide in the black ash waste of the Leblanc alkali process.
Boron sulphide B 2 S 3 can be obtained by the direct union of the two elements at a white heat or from the tri-iodide and sulphur at 44 0 ° C., but is most conveniently prepared by heating a mixture of the trioxide and carbon in a stream of carbon bisulphide vapour.
Good lodes of stibnite (sulphide of antimony) have been found near Roebourne in Western Australia, but no attempt has yet been made to work them.
Molybdenum, in the form of molybdenite (sulphide of molybdenum), is found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, associated in the parent state with tin and bismuth in quartz reefs.
Zinc ores, in the several varieties of carbonates, silicates, oxide, sulphide and sulphate of zinc, have been found in several of the Australian states, but have attracted little attention except in New South Wales, where special efforts are being made successfully to produce a high-grade zinc concentrate from the sulphide ores.
Also several contacts, such as that of galena (sulphide of lead) and 1 See J.
Cadmium does not occur naturally in the uncombined condition, and only one mineral is known which contains it in any appreciable quantity, namely, greenockite, or cadmium sulphide, found at Greenock and at Bishopton in Scotland, and in Bohemia and Pennsylvania.
Cadmium sulphide, CdS, occurs naturally as greenockite (q.v.), and can be artificially prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through acid solutions of soluble cadmium salts, when it is precipitated as a pale yellow amorphous solid.
This precipitate is insoluble in cold dilute acids, in ammonium sulphide, and in solutions of the caustic alkalis," a behaviour which distinguishes it from the yellow sulphides of arsenic and tin.
It can also be determined as sulphide, by precipitation with sulphuretted hydrogen, the precipitated sulphide being dried at Ioo° C. and weighed.
Molybdenum trioxide, Mo03, is prepared by oxidizing the metal or the sulphide by heating them in air, or with nitric acid.
Two oxides of germanium are known, the dioxide, GeO2, being obtained by roasting the sulphide and treatment with nitric acid.
By heating the disulphide in a current of hydrogen, germanious sulphide, GeS, is formed.
Sulphur containing selenium, such as occurs in the isle of Vulcano in the Lipari Isles, may be orange-red; and a similar colour is seen in sulphur which contains arsenic sulphide, such as that from La Solfatara near Naples.
Deposits of sulphur are frequently formed by the decomposition of hydrogen sulphide, on exposure to the atmosphere: hence natural sulphureous waters, especially hot springs, readily deposit sulphur.
Another form, mixed with the variety just described, is obtained by adding 3 to 4 volumes of alcohol to a solution of ammonium sulphide saturated with sulphur and exposing the mixture to air at about 5°.
To obtain pure sulphuretted hydrogen the method generally adopted consists in decomposing precipitated antimony sulphide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Hofmann, who obtained it by saturating an alcoholic solution of ammonium sulphide with sulphur and mixing the product with an alcoholic solution of strychnine, considered the resulting product to be H2S3; while P. Sabatier by fractionating the crude product in vacuo obtained an oi l which boiled between 60° and 85° C. and possessed the composition H4S5.
Azurite occurs with malachite in the upper portions of deposits of copper ore, and owes its origin to the alteration of the sulphide or of native copper by water containing carbon dioxide and oxygen.
The problem of the profitable treatment of the sulphide ores has been practically solved here.
Potassium, when heated, burns in the vapour of carbon bisulphide, forming potassium sulphide and liberating carbon.
Ruthenium sulphate, Ru(S04)2, as obtained by oxidizing the sulphide, is an orange-yellow mass which is deliquescent and dissolves in water, the solution possessing a strongly acid reaction.
VERMILION, a scarlet pigment composed of mercuric sulphide, HgS.
It is also prepared by digesting precipitated mercuric sulphide with an alkaline sulphide fox some hours; it is said that Chinese vermilion owes its superiority to being made in this way.
The term allotropy has also been applied to inorganic compounds, identical in composition, but assuming different crystallographic forms. Mercuric oxide, sulphide and iodide; arsenic trioxide; titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide may be cited as examples.
An, matter), formed the basis of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzoyl chloride, benzoyl bromide and benzoyl sulphide, benzamide and benzoic ether.
Thus the thio-alcohols or mercaptans (q.v.) contain the group - CH2 SH; and the elimination of the elements of sulphuretted hydrogen between two molecules of a thio-alcohol results in the formation of a thio-ether or sulphide, R 2 S.
We may also notice that thio-ethers combine with alkyl iodides to form sulphide or sulphonium compounds, R3; SI.
The mono-benzo-derivatives are coumarone, benzothiophene and indole; the dibenzo-derivatives are diphenylene oxide, dibenzothiophene or diphenylene sulphide, and carbazole.
A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.
To the filtrate from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and ammonium sulphide are added; the precipitate may contain nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides.
The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.
The residue from the ammonium sulphide solution is warmed with dilute nitric acid.
Any residue consists of black mercuric sulphide (and possibly white lead sulphate), in which mercury is confirmed by its usual tests.
The next group may contain black nickel and cobalt sulphides, flesh-coloured manganese sulphide, and white zinc sulphide.
The solution with ammonium sulphide gives a white precipitate of zinc sulphide.
PYRRHOTITE, a mineral species consisting of iron sulphide and crystallizing in the hexagonal system.
Nitrogen sulphide, N4S4, first obtained by W.
When heated with CS 2 to 1 00° C. under pressure, it forms liquid nitrogen sulphide, N 2 S 5, a mobile red liquid which solidifies to an iodine-like mass of crystals which melt at Io-I I° C. Water, alkalis and acids decompose it into sulphur and ammonia (W.
On the surface, where the sand is bathed by the tidal water, the ferrous sulphide becomes oxidized and the sand is bleached, but underneath it is dense black or grey, as the case may be.
In other cases the injurious effects of free sulphur are obviated by using instead of it a metallic sulphide, - generally the orange sulphide of antimony; but, for the best results, it is necessary that this should contain from 20 to 30% of uncombined sulphur.
An authority on precious stones, and especially the diamond, he succeeded in artificially making some minute specimens of the latter gem; and on the discovery of radium he was one of the first to take up the study of its properties, in particular inventing the spinthariscope, an instrument in which the effects of a trace of radium salt are manifested by the phosphorescence produced on a zinc sulphide screen.
Galena (q.v.), the principal lead ore, has a world-wide distribution, and is always contaminated with silver sulphide, the proportion of noble metal varying from about o of or less to o 3%, and in rare cases coming up to 2 or i %.
In practice this oxidation process is continued until the whole of the oxygen is as nearly as possible equal in weight to the sulphur present as sulphide or as sulphate, i.e.
At this stage as a rule some rich slags of a former operation are added and a quantity of quicklime is incorporated, the chief object of which is to diminish the fluidity of the mass in the next stage, which consists in this, that, with closed air-holes, the heat is raised so as to cause the oxide and sulphate on the one hand and the sulphide on the other to reduce each other to metal.
Thus, a mixture of lead sulphate (45%) and oxide (44%) with some sulphide (8%), zinc and carbonaceous matter, is agglomerated by a heap-roast and then smelted in a slag-eye furnace with grey slag from the ore-hearth.
Ores are smelted raw if the fall of matte (metallic sulphide) does not exceed 5%; otherwise they are subjected to a preliminary oxidizing roast to expel the sulphur, unless they run too high in silver, say 100 oz.
The leading reverberatory furnace for roasting lead-bearing sulphide ores has a level hearth 14-16 ft.
In making up a charge, the ores and fluxes, whose chemical compositions have been determined, are mixed so as to form out of the components, not to be reduced to the metallic or sulphide state, typical slags (silicates of ferrous and calcium oxides, incidentally of aluminium oxide, which have been found to do successful work).
Pliny mentions it under the name of minium, but it was confused with cinnabar and the red arsenic sulphide; Dioscorides mentions its preparation from white lead or lead carbonate.
Lead sulphide, PbS, occurs in nature as the mineral galena (q.v.), and constitutes the most valuable ore of llead.
Ammonium sulphide blackens it, and it is soluble in solution of ammonium acetate, which distinguishes it from barium sulphate.
But the most delicate precipitant for lead is sulphuretted hydrogen, which produces a black precipitate of lead sulphide, insoluble in cold dilute nitric acid, less so in cold hydrochloric, and easily decomposed by hot hydrochloric acid with formation of the characteristic chloride.