Rend., 1904 seq.) by fractional crystallization of the nickel double nitrates, the ethyl sulphates, and the bismuth double nitrates of the terbium earths.
The metals comprising this group are never found in the uncombined condition, but occur most often in the form of carbonates and sulphates; they form oxides of the type RO, and in the case of calcium, strontium and barium, of the type R02.
As the atomic weight of the element increases, it is found that the solubility of the sulphates in water decreases.
The salts of all the metals of this group usually crystallize well, the chlorides and nitrates dissolve readily in water, whilst the carbonates, phosphates and sulphates are either very sparingly soluble or are insoluble in water.
Carbolic acid and sulphates combine in the blood to form sulpho-carbolates, which are innocuous.
The symptoms of nerve-poisoning are due to the carbolic acid (or its salts) which circulate in the blood after all the sulphates in the blood have been used up in the formation of sulpho-carbolates (hence, during administration of carbolic acid, the urine should frequently be tested for the presence of free sulphates; as long as these occur in the urine, they are present in the blood and there is no danger).
The reduction of sulphates to sulphides by means of organic matter, probably through the agency of sulphur-bacteria, may also indirectly furnish sulphur, and hence it is frequently found in deposits of gypsum.
Copper pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mercury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite (calcium), barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium).
The mineral is usually found in a state of considerable chemical purity, though small amounts of strontium and calcium sulphates may isomorphously replace the barium sulphate: ammonium sulphate is also sometimes present, whilst clay, silica, bituminous matter, &c., may be enclosed as impurities.
Crystals of barytes are orthorhombic and isomorphous with the strontium and lead sulphates (celestite and anglesite); they are usually very perfectly developed and present great variety of form.
Barium chloride is present in some natural waters, and when this is the case the interaction of sulphates results in a deposition of barytes, as has occurred in the pipes and water-boxes of the Newcastle-on-Tyne coal mines.
Mitscherlich, who also observed the similarity of the crystallographic characters of selenates and sulphates, which afforded valuable corroboration of his doctrine of isomorphism.
Formerly the sparkand absorption-spectra were the sole methods available; a third method was introduced by Crookes, who submitted the oxides, or preferably the basic sulphates, to the action of a negative electric discharge in vacuo, and investigated the phosphorescence induced spectroscopically.
Sulphur dioxide, recognized by its smell and acid reaction, results from the ignition of certain sulphites, sulphates, or a mixture of a sulphate with a sulphide.
7 represents the specific volumes of mixtures of ammonium and potassium sulphates; the ordinates re presenting specific volumes, and the abscissae the per centage composition of the mixture.
ULTRAMARINE, a blue pigment, consisting essentially of a double silicate of aluminium and sodium with some sulphides or sulphates, and occurring in nature as a proximate component of lapis lazuli.
The oxides are then converted into double sulphates which are separated from each other by repeated fractional crystallization or by fractional precipitation with ammonia or some other base.
The mean values of the relative coagulative powers of sulphates of mono-, di-, and tri-valent metals have been shown experimentally to be approximately in the ratios 1 :35:1023.
Thus neither a chlorate, which contains the ion C103, nor monochloracetic acid, shows the reactions of chlorine, though it is, of course, present in both substances; again, the sulphates do not answer to the usual tests which indicate the presence of sulphur as sulphide.
ALUM, in chemistry, a term given to the crystallized double sulphates of the typical formula M 2 SO 4 ï¿½ MP' ï¿½(S04) 324H20, where M.
From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.
In one process the purified ore is disintegrated with hot nitric acid to produce nitrates, which are then converted into sulphates by evaporation with sulphuric acid.
The sulphates are treated with water, which dissolves the uranium and other soluble salts, while silica, lead sulphate, &c., remain; these are removed by filtration.
On its thoroughness depends the removal of small quantities of products other than the nitrates, for instance, some sulphates and products from impurities contained in the original cellulose.
Cellulose sulphates are one, and possibly the main, cause of instability in guncotton, and it is highly desirable that they should be completely hydrolysed and removed in the washing process.
Hot (concentrated) sulphuric acid does not attack gold, platinum and platinum-metals generally; all other metals (including silver) are converted into sulphates, with evolution of sulphur dioxide.
The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils.
It contains a certain amount of unaltered caustic lime and slacked lime, along with sulphates and sulphides of lime, some of which have an evil odour.
The conglomerate consists of rock fragments, sodium chloride and various sulphates, cemented together by gypsum to form a hard compact mass 6 to 10 ft.
Zinc sulphate, like magnesium sulphate, unites with the sulphates of the potassium metals and of ammonium into crystalline double salts, ZnS04 R2S04-+-6H20, isomorphous with one another and the magnesium salts.
At the same time any lead, calcium, barium and strontium present are precipitated as sulphates; it is therefore advantageous to remove these metals by the preliminary addition of sulphuric acid, which also serves to keep any basic iron salts in solution.
It is based upon the facts that concentrated hot sulphuric acid converts silver and copper into soluble sulphates without attacking the gold, the silver sulphate being subsequently reduced to the metallic state by copper plates with the formation of copper sulphate.
Generally the reaction mixture is allowed to cool, and the residue, which settles to the bottom of the pot, consists of gold together with copper, lead and iron sulphates, which are insoluble in strong sulphuric acid; silver sulphate may also separate if present in sufficient quantity and the solution be sufficiently cooled.
The solution of metallic chlorides or sulphates so obtained is precipitated by iron, the metallic bismuth filtered, washed with water, pressed in canvas bags, and finally fused in graphite crucibles, the surface being protected by a layer of charcoal.
The great similarity between the salts of the ocean and the gaseous products of volcanic eruptions at the present time, rich in chlorides and sulphates of all kinds, is a strong argument for the ocean having been salt from the beginning.
Pyrites, which yields sulphates by combustion.
It combines with many metallic sulphates (silver, zinc, cobalt, nickel, &c.) to form double sulphates of the type Cs2S04 RS04.6H20.
Since it forms a series of double sulphates, Ruer (Zeit.
Zirconium also forms double sulphates of the type Zr203(S04M)2 nH20, where M =K, Rb, Cs, and n=8 for K, 15 for Rb, 11 for Cs (Rosenheim and Frank, Ber., 1905, 38, p. 812).
Hydrated sulphates occur at several localities in the province of Madrid and in other provinces of Spain, and at Miihlingen in Aargau, and copious deposits of glauberite, the double sulphate of sodium and calcium, are met with in the salt-mines of Villarrubia in Spain, at Stassfurt, and in the province of Tarapaca, Chile, &c. A native nitrate of soda is obtained in great abundance in the district of Atacama and the province of Tarapaca, and is imported into Europe in enormous quantities as cubic nitre for the preparation of saltpetre.
Iooi), who obtained cubic crystals from a supersaturated solution of sodium and aluminium sulphates below 20°, higher temperatures giving monoclinic crystals.
The kelp obtained by any of these methods is then lixiviated with water, which extracts the soluble salts, and the liquid is concentrated, when the less soluble salts, which are chiefly alkaline chlorides, sulphates and carbonates, crystallize out and are removed.
Sulphuric acid is now added to the liquid, and any alkaline sulphides and sulphites present are decomposed, while iodides and bromides are converted into sulphates, and hydriodic and hydrobromic acids are liberated and remain dissolved in the solution.
Concentrated sulphuric acid converts them into sulphates, with simultaneous liberation of carbon monoxide.
Epsom salts crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, being isomorphous with the corresponding zinc and nickel sulphates, and also with magnesium chromate.
For the manufacture of Epsom salts and for other hydrated magnesium sulphates see Magnesium.
Recoura, Annales de, Chimie et de Physique, 1895 (7), 4, p. 505.) Chromic sulphate combines with the sulphates of the alkali metals to form double sulphates, which correspond to the alums. Chrome alum, K2S04 Cr2(S04)3.24H20, is best prepared by passing sulphur dioxide through a solution of potassium bichromate containing the calculated quantity of sulphuric acid, K 2 Cr 2 O 7 -}-3SO 2 +H 2 S04 = H20+K2S04 4-Cr2(S04) 3.
Such phenomena are well known in the alums - double sulphates of aluminium with another metal.
But to ensure the permanence of structures in sea-water the great object is to choose a cement containing as little lime and alumina as possible, and free from sulphates such as gypsum; and more important still to proportion the sand and stones in the concrete in such a way that the structure is practically non-porous.
Potash and soda are also valuable inorganic manures in the form of carbonates, sulphates, silicates and phosphates, but the most valuable is the nitrate of potash.
Diazoimino compounds, R N3, may be regarded as derivatives of azoimide; they are formed by the action of ammonia on the diazoperbromides,or by the action of hydroxylamine on the diazonium sulphates (J.
The substances in commonest use are: - lime or limestone, to slag off silica and silicates, fluor-spar for lead, calcium and barium sulphates and calcium phosphate, and silica for removing basic substances such as limestone.
Great care should be taken in using dimethyl and diethyl sulphates, as the respiratory organs are affected by the vapours, leading to severe attacks of pneumonia.
On concentration of the solution, the major portion of the aluminium present separates as alum, and the mother liquor remaining contains beryllium and iron sulphates together with a little alum.
Double sulphates of beryllium and the alkali metals are known, e.g.
He obtained selenic acid in 1827 and showed that its salts are isomorphous with the sulphates, while a few years later he proved that the same thing is true of the manganates and the sulphates, and of the permanganates and the perchlorates.
This destructive action is increased if the water contains sulphates or magnesium salts, both of which act chemically on the calcareous constituents of the cement.
As sea-water contains both sulphates and magnesium salts, it is especially necessary in concrete for harbour work to take every care to produce an impervious structure.
The mixed chlorides are boiled down to dryness with sulphuric acid to convert them into sulphates, which are then separated by boiling water, which dissolves only the thallium salt.
Other instances of the isomorphism of thallous with potassium salts are the nitrates, phosphates, hydrazoates, sulphates, chromates, selenates, and the analogously constituted double salts, and also the oxalates, racemates and picrates.
It unites with sulphuric acid giving an acid salt, T1HSO 4.3H 2 O, and with aluminium, chromium and iron sulphates to form an "alum."