But this "design" has been attributed rather to the imagination of Sully himself than to the more practical policy of the king.
Although at bottom authoritative he surrounded himself with admirable advisers (Sully, Sillery, Villeroy, Jeannin) and profited from their co-operation.
The grand design of Sully, the organization of a Christian Republic of the European nations for the preservation of peace, was but the invention of an irresponsible minister, soured by defeat and wishing to impress posterity.
The most illustrious member of the Bethune family was Maximilien, baron of Rosny, and afterwards duke of Sully, minister of Henry IV.
Under conditions; as Sully has recorded, the king declared his only motive to be the expediency of not driving them into a corner with possible disastrous results to his life, and because his only hope of tranquillity lay in appeasing them and their powerful friends.
(France), which some historians regard merely as the fantastic idea of a visionary, was probably a scheme of his great minister Sully to avert by a federation the conflict which he probably foresaw would break out sooner or later between Catholic and Protestant Europe, and which, in fact, broke out some fifteen years later in the Thirty Years' War.
According to one account he died on the 10th of July 1160, and as Maurice de Sully became bishop that year the statement seems probable.
To alleviate the distress of the people he undertook to develop both agriculture and industry: planting colonies of Dutch and Flemish settlers to drain the marshes of Saintonge, issuing prohibitive measures against the importation of foreign goods (1597), introducing the silk industry, encouraging the manufacture of cloth, of glass-ware, of tapestries (Gobelins), and under the direction of Sully - named grand-voyer de France - improving and increasing the routes for commerce.
Sully in his Economies royales attributes to his master the "great design" of constituting, after having defeated Austria, a vast European confederation of fifteen states - a "Christian Republic" - directed by a general council of sixty deputies reappointed every three years.
De Sancy, from whom it was purchased by Sully and included in the jewels of the crown.
His government was personal, not through departments; he retained the old council though reducing its members; and his ministers, taken from every party, were nevernot even Sully anything more than mere clerks, without independent position, mere instruments of his good pleasure.
Despite the influence of Sully, a convinced agrarian because of his horror of luxury and love of economy, Henry IV.
Silk-weaving, printing, tapestry, &c. Sully at least provided renascent manufacture with the roads necessary for communication and planted them with trees.
Finally, the system of commercial companies, antipathetic to the French bourgeoisie, was for the first time practised on a grand scale; but Sully never understood that movement of colonial expansion, begun by Henry II.
The war clamoured for by the Protestants, politicians like Sully, and the nobility; and the Spanish alliance, to be cemented by marriages, and preached by the ultramontane Spanish camarilla formed by the queen, Pre Coton, the kings confessor, the minister Villeroy, and Ubaldini, the papal nuncio.
He was insulted by the chevalier de Rohan, replied with his usual sharpness of tongue, and shortly afterwards, when dining with the duke of Sully, was called out and bastinadoed by the chavelier's hirelings, Rohan himself looking on.
His fate has been commemorated in numerous plays, pictures and poems, notably in the fine epilogue of Sully Prudhomme, the Stello of A.
The seigneurs of Bethune, avoues (advocati) of the great abbey of Saint-Vaast at Arras from the I 1 th century, were the ancestors of a great French house whence sprang the dukes of Sully, Charost, Orval, and Ancenis; the marquises of Rosny, Courville and Chabris; the counts of Selles and the princes of Boisbelle and Henrichemont.
The urban district of Barry, with a population in 1901 of 27,030, comprises the ecclesiastical parishes of Barry, Cadoxton, Merthyr-Dovan, and a portion of Sully in which is included Barry Island (194 acres), now, however, joined to the mainland.
The Indians still remained hostile, however, and in 1865 Sully found it necessary to conduct his troops N.
About the beginning of the 17th century Olivier de Serres and Laffemas, somewhat against the will of Sully, obtained royal edicts favouring the growth of mulberry plantations and the cultivation of silk; but it cannot be said that these industries were firmly established till Colbert encouraged the planting of the mulberry by premiums, and otherwise stimulated local efforts.
Aided by his faithful friend Maximilien de Bethune, baron de Rosny and duc de Sully (q.v.), he reformed the finances, repressed abuses, suppressed useless offices, extinguished the formidable debt and realized a reserve of eighteen millions.
The duke of Sully carried out a revision in 1604, and other attempts were made by Mazarin and Colbert, but the extravagarces of Louis XV.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
Sully and to follow closely T.
See James Sully, Pessimism: A History and a Criticism (1877); Caro, Le Pessimisme au xix e siecle (1878); Saltus, The Anatomy of Negation (1886); Tulloch, Modern Theories on Philosophy and Religion (1884); William James, The Will to Believe; Duhring, Der Werth des Lebens (1865); Meyer, Weltelend and Weltschmerz (1872); E.
There is a fine château of the late 15th century, restored in modern times, at Montignyle-Gannelon, and another of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, at one time the property of Sully, at Villebon.
Voltaire revenged himself on the duke of Sully for his conduct towards his guest by cutting Maximilien de Bethune's name out of the Henriade.